Monday, January 27, 2020
Differences Between Unitary Government And Federal Government Politics Essay In a unitary government, the power is held by one central authority but in a federal government, the power is divided between national government or federal government and local governments or states government. Federal government has multiple hierarchy levels, with both the central authority and the states (or provinces) both being sovereign. Furthermore, the central or national rules override the state rules. It also has balance between them for example the United State. It is shared betweenÃ nationalÃ andÃ localÃ levels. In a federal form of government, the term federal is also used to refer to the national level of government. However, for unitary government there is no hierarchy of sovereign powers. It is a state which has no authority to make their own laws and the government can only order the states to do anything. For example is Japan. Japan is a federal government which has a huge percentage of power. The advantages and disadvantages of Unitary Government Advantages The advantages of unitary government are it is single and decisive legislative. It has a simple management of an economy and the government is smaller.Ã It is uniformity of policies, laws, enforcement and administration of laws, government and others. Its also less duplication of services and a fewer conflicts between national and local government will occur. Disadvantages The disadvantages of using this type of system are it has slow government response. For example, there is no state National Guard that could be dispatched in emergency, troops would have to be mobilized from national authority. It is also easily looses track of local issues. Other than that, it is incredibly disruptive form of government where everyone is forced to compete with everyone else for priority. Since it is trying to take the place of federal and state governments, the unitary governments typical get distended and bogged down. Finally, it has huge system of government that is even larger than what this country has. The Advantages and the disadvantages of Federalism Advantages Every province has political, social and economic problems unusual to the region itself. Provincial government representatives live in close immediacy to the people and are most of the times from the same group of people so that they are in a better situation to understand these problems and offer distinctive solutions for them. For example, traffic jam in Oahu, Hawaii is a problem that can be best solved by the local government, keeping general factors in mind, rather than by somebody living in New York. Federalism offers depiction to different populations. Citizens of a range of provinces may have different aspirations, ethnicity and follow different cultures. The central government can sometimes fail to notice these differences and assume policies which cater to the majority. This is where the regional government steps in. While formulating policies, local needs, tastes and opinions are given due consideration by the state governments. Rights of the minorities are protected too. For example, in states like Arizona where there is a large Hispanic population and therefore, a large number of schools provide bilingual education. State governments have the freedom to adopt policies which may not be followed nationally or by any other state. For example, same sex marriages are not recognized by the federal government of USA but they are given legal status within the states of Connecticut, Iowa, Vermont and Massachusetts. Division of work between the central and the regional governments leads to optimum exploitation of resources. The central government can concentrate more on global affairs and defense of the country while the provincial government can provide to the local needs.Ã Federalism has room for improvement and testing. Two local governments can have two different approaches to bring reforms in any area of public area, be it taxes or education. The comparison of the results of these policies can give a clear suggestion of which policy is better and thus, can be adopted in the upcoming. Disadvantages Sharing of power between the Center and the states includes both advantages and disadvantages of federation. Sometimes there can be overlap of work and a following misunderstanding regarding who is responsible for what. For example, when typhoon Katrina hit Greater New Orleans, USA, in 2005, there was interruption in the salvage work as there was confusion between the state governments and the federal government on who is responsible for which disaster management work. This resulted in the loss of many lives. The federal system of government is very expensive as more people are chosen to office, both at the state and the center, than necessary. Thus, it is often said that only wealthy countries can afford it. Too many chosen representatives with overlapping roles may also lead to corruption. Other than that, it leads to unnecessary rivalry between different regions. There can be a rising by a regional government against the national government too. Both scenarios pose a threat to the countries reliability.Ã It is also promotes regional inequalities. Natural resources, industries, employment opportunities differ from region to region. Hence earnings and wealth are unevenly circulated Rich states offer more opportunities and benefits to its citizens than poor states can. Thus, the gap between rich and poor states widens.Ã It also can make the state governments selfish and concerned only about their own regions progress. They can formulate policies which might be harmful to other regions. For example, pollution from a province which is promoting industrialization in a big way can affect another region which depends exclusively on agriculture and cause crop damage. Finally, it does not eliminate poverty. Even in New York, there are poor neighborhoods like Harlem with a majority of black population. The reason for this may be that during policy framing, it is the intellectuals and not the masses who are invited by the local government.
Sunday, January 19, 2020
Nuclear Waste Management Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Nuclear energy harnesses the energy released during the splitting or fusing of atomic nuclei. This heat energy is most often used to convert water to steam, turning turbines, and generating electricity. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã However, nuclear energy also has many disadvantages. An event that demonstrated this was the terrible incident at Chernobyl'. Here on April 26, 1986, one of the reactors of a nuclear power plant went out of control and caused the world's worst known reactor disaster to date. An experiment that was not properly supervised was conducted with the water-cooling system turned off. This led to the uncontrolled reaction, which in turn caused a steam explosion. The reactor's protective covering was blown off, and approximately 100 million curies of radionuclides were released into the atmosphere. Some of the radiation spread across northern Europe and into Great Britain. Soviet statements indicated that 31 people died because of the accident, but the number of radiation-caused deaths is still unknown. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The same deadly radiation that was present in this explosion is also present in spent fuels. This presents special problems in the handling, storage, and disposal of the depleted uranium. When nuclear fuel is first loaded into a reactor, 238U and 235U are present. When in the reactor, the 235U is gradually depleted and gives rise to fission products, generally, cesium (137Cs) and strontium (90Sr). These waste materials are very unstable and have to undergo radioactive disintegration before they can be transformed into stable isotopes. Each radioactive isotope in this waste material decays at its characteristic rate. A half-life can be less than a second or can be thousands of years long. The isotopes also emit characteristic radiation: it can be electromagnetic (X- ray or gamma radiation) or it can consist of particles (alpha, beta, or neutron radiation). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Exposure to large doses of ionizing radiation causes characteristic patterns of injury. Doses are measured in rads (1 rad is equal to an amount of radiation that releases 100 ergs of energy per gram of matter). Doses of more than 4000 rads severely damage the human vascular system, causing cerebral edema (excess fluid), which leads to extreme shock and neurological disturba... ...relatively low in cost compared to storage in a pool of water and can be moved around if necessary. Another way to dispose of radioactive wastes is through geologic isolation. This is the disposal of wastes deep within the crust of the earth. This form of disposal is attractive because it appears that wastes can be safely isolated from the biosphere for thousands of years or longer. Disposal in mined vaults does not require the use of advanced technologies, rather the application of what we know today. It is possible to locate mineral, rock, or other bodies beneath the surface of the earth that will not be subject to groundwater intrusion. A preferred place would be at least 1,500 feet below the earth's crust, so that it may avoid erosion for the specified period of time. None of the preceding methods offers a complete solution to the problem of nuclear waste. They only bury it, temporarily shoving it out of our current view for a latter generation to solve. Maybe the future inhabitants of this world will find a solution to this problem, for as we chose to continue the use of nuclear power, more and more waste will be accumulated, emitting deadly radiation long after we pass away.
Saturday, January 11, 2020
The marginal product of labor varies depending on the number of products a company is currently making such as cell phones, and tablets. This company is equipped with multiplies of workers to use all there equipment weather itÃ¢â¬â¢s their children or themselves. When the corporation doesn't have sufficient labors to custom all of its tools, an extra worker can harvest many more substances with its current equipment such as the tablet in this case or the Galaxy phones, so the marginal product of labor is high. If Samsung have more workers that the machine it produces by hiring more people, so the marginal product of labor is lower, which is known as the law of diminishing returns.The amount of demand by any service that Samsung and Apple is significant to the amount of the services that the buyers are willing and able to purchase. But really these two companies are competing in the tablets and the IPhones all the other brands are just added benefits to the company to make more prof its. The amount that these two companies fund whether it is goods or services is the amount that they are willing and able to make profit. While Samsung have a wide range of cell phones Apple only has the IPhones but they both have services to make these device work.Now that we have understood the supply and demand for these products and services, we need to determine the value and the amount of the goods and services sold to the community. Finding the equilibrium price which is the amount of the goods that people who are willing and can afford to buy. Both of these companies have both cell phones and tables/ IPads. IN the world we live in today cell phone are a must especially if you have children.There are schools as well as business that require the students to have IPads which is whatÃ¢â¬â¢s being giving out in the schools then you have employments that require there workers to have cell phones. Cell phones and tablet from Samsung are the products that customers buy because Ap ple is overpriced and many people can afford to buy their goods.
Friday, January 3, 2020
If youre in the midst of some serious growing up stress -- boyfriends, girlfriends, friends, cliques, popularity, grades, sports, parents -- you might need a little life from those who have been there and survived.Ã Quotes About Growing Up The Wonder YearsGrowing up happens in a heartbeat. One day youre in diapers; the next day youre gone. But the memories of childhood stay with you for the long haul. Growing up is never easy. You hold on to things that were. You wonder whats to come. But that night, I think we knew it was time to let go of what had been and look ahead to what would be. Other days. New days. Days to come. The thing is, we didnt have to hate each other for getting older. We just had to forgive ourselves ... for growing up. Alden NowlanThe day the child realizes that all adults are imperfect, he becomes an adolescent; the day he forgives them, he becomes an adult; the day he forgives himself, he becomes wise. May Lamberton BeckerWe grow neither better nor worse as we get old, but more like ourselves. Walt DisneyToo many people grow up. Thats the real trouble with the world, too many people grow up. They forget. They dont remember what its like to be 12 years old. They patronize, they treat children as inferiors. Well, I wont do that. Christopher MorleyWeve had bad luck with children; theyve all grown up. Meredith GreyIve heard that its possible to grow up -- Ive just never met anyone whos actually done it. Dr. James C. DobsonSometimes, were so concerned about giving our children what we never had growing up, we neglect to give them what we did have growing up. Tom StoppardMaturity is a high price to pay for growing up. John J. PlompYou know children are growing up when they start asking questions that have answers. P. J. ORourkeYou know your children are growing up when they stop asking you where they came from and refuse to tell you where theyre going. Elizabeth TaylorI think Im finally growing up -- and about time. Elvis PresleyI was an only child, and Mother was always right with me all my life. I used to get very angry at her when I was growing up -- its a natural thing. Abraham LincolnYou have to do your own growing no matter how tall your grandfather was. J. M. BarrieGrowing up is such a barbarous business, full of inconvenience ... and pimples. Mary Beth DanielsonIf growing up is the process of creating ideas and dreams about what life should be, then maturity is letting go again. Ethel BarrymoreYou grow up the day you have your first real laugh -- at yourself. M. Scott PeckIt is only because of problems that we grow mentally and spiritually. Sylvia PlathDoing all the little tricky things it takes to grow up, step by step, into an anxious and unsettling world. Casey StengelThe trick is growing up without growing old. Woody HarrelsonA grown-up is a child with layers on. Christopher AtkinsNow Im growing and I can see my faults. I can look at myself objectively and say I cant blame anyone else; it was my own damn fault. Beverly MitchellPart of growing up is just taking what you learn from that and moving on and not taking it to heart.