Saturday, August 31, 2019

Comparative Essay Of 4 Poems Essay

In this essay I will be talking about the comparison of characters in the following poems: Mother any distance, Havisham, The Laboratory and My Last Duchess. When we first look at these poems they all have something in common, they are all about relationships. Mother any distance is about a mother and son relationship, Havisham shows a failed relationship with her fiancà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½, The Laboratory shows a relationship in shreds that leads to the use of poison and finally My Last Duchess shows the differences between two people in a relationship and what it can lead to. The structure in Mother any distance is approximately sonnet length but not exactly, this could show that it is a loving relationship but in a different way, as it is a mother and son. This shows that they are very close to each other. Havisham on the other hand has 4 x 4 line stanzas and is very precise. This could mean that it has been rehearsed over the years and she knows exactly what to say. The Laboratory is very different from Havisham structure wise as it has 12 stanzas varying in length and split up. This shows that she is making it up as she goes along. Finally My Last Duchess is only1 stanza, which adds more flow to the overall piece. The duke in my last duchess is a rich, handsome man who believes that he deserves to be treated better than anyone else. When talking to an envoy he recalls the story of how his wife acted and that he had her killed because she treated everyone equally not just him and was quite flirtatious. The duke can be compared to the poisoner in The Laboratory as they both are involved in death/murder. The poisoner however wants revenge on her husband as he is cheating on her. Compared to the duke the poisoner acts much less calm and more psychotic. The idea of revenge also appears in Havisham, she is an old woman who was jilted on her wedding day. She now hates all men and wishes to have her revenge on the man that ruined her life. Havisham uses bitter and twisted language to portray her emotions. As with all of these poems love appears somewhere and it is the same with Mother any distance but this time with a mother and son. The writer uses measurements and distances to show a parting relationship, as the son is moving into a new house. Havisham and The Laboratory are very similar if we look at thoughts and attitudes. They both show strong hatred/anger and they both want revenge so much that they seem to turn psychotic with insanity. Mother and my last duchess on the other hand are possessive and controlling. The mother wants her son to stay and always tries to help him as she thinks he needs a second pair of hands. The duke tries to control his wife and expects her to let her beauty speak not her mouth. â€Å"Seen not heard† and thought that she would respect his 900-year-old name. The difference though is that the duke acts very calm about it all so much so that it almost justifies his actions. In conclusion all 4 poems are related to each other yet are about different subjects. My last duchess shows the duke seeing his wife as an object not a person. The laboratory shows how far people will go to get revenge. In Havisham we see the effect of breaking someones heart and finally we see how we need to let go of those who we love and let them make their own path.

Friday, August 30, 2019

The Silver Linings Playbook Chapter 19

Sister Sailor-Mouth I'm at the Crystal Lake Diner with Tiffany; we're in the same booth as last time, eating our single-serving box of raisin bran, drinking hot tea. We did not say anything on the walk here; we did not say anything when we were waiting for our server to bring the milk, bowl, and box. I'm starting to understand that we have the type of friendship that does not require many words. As I watch her spoon the brown flakes and sugared raisins into her pink lips, I try to decide whether I want to tell her about what happened at the Eagles game. For two days now I have been thinking about that little kid crying, hiding behind his father's leg, and I feel so guilty about hitting the big Giants fan. I did not tell my mom, because the news would have upset her. My father has not talked to me since the Eagles lost to the Giants, and I don't see Dr. Cliff until Friday. Plus, I'm starting to think Tiffany is the only one who might understand, since she seems to have a similar problem and is always exploding, like on the beach when Veronica slipped and mentioned Tiffany's therapist in front of me. I look at Tiffany, who is sitting slouched, both elbows on the table. She's wearing a black shirt that makes her hair look even blacker. She has on too much makeup, as usual. She looks sad. She looks angry. She looks different from everyone else I know – she cannot put on that happy face others wear when they know they are being watched. She doesn't put on a face for me, which makes me trust her somehow. Suddenly Tiffany looks up, stares into my eyes. â€Å"You're not eating.† â€Å"I'm sorry,† I say, and look down at the gold sparkles in the table's plastic coating. â€Å"People will think I'm a hog if they see me eating while you watch.† So I dip my spoon into the bowl, drip milk onto the sparkly table, and shovel a small mound of milk-soaked raisin bran into my mouth. I chew. I swallow. Tiffany nods and then looks out the window again. â€Å"Something bad happened at the Eagles game,† I say, and then wish I hadn't. â€Å"I don't want to hear about football.† Tiffany sighs. â€Å"I hate football.† â€Å"This really isn't about football.† She continues to stare out the window. I look and confirm that there are only parked cars outside, nothing of interest. And then I am talking: â€Å"I hit a man so hard – lifting him up off the ground even – I thought I maybe killed him.† She looks at me. Tiffany squints and sort of smiles, like she might even laugh. â€Å"Well, did you?† â€Å"Did I what?† â€Å"Kill the man.† â€Å"No. No, I didn't. I knocked him out, but he eventually woke up.† â€Å"Should you have killed him?† Tiffany asks. â€Å"I don't know.† I am amazed by her question. â€Å"I mean, no! Of course not.† â€Å"Then why did you hit him so hard?† â€Å"He threw my brother down to the concrete, and my mind just exploded. It was like I left my body and my body was doing something I did not want to do. And I haven't really talked about this with anyone and I was hoping you might want to listen to me so that I could – â€Å" â€Å"Why did the man throw your brother to the ground?† I tell her the whole story – start to finish – letting her know I can't get the big guy's son out of my mind. I'm still seeing the little guy hiding behind his father's leg; I'm seeing the little guy crying, sobbing, so obviously afraid. I also tell her about my dream – the one where Nikki comforts the Giants fan. When I finish the story, Tiffany says, â€Å"So?† â€Å"So?† â€Å"So I don't get why you're so upset?† For a second I think she might be kidding me, but Tiffany's face does not crack. â€Å"I'm upset because I know Nikki will be mad at me when I tell her what happened. I am upset because I disappointed myself, and apart time will surely be extended now because God will want to protect Nikki until I learn to control myself better, and like Jesus, Nikki is a pacifist, which is the reason she did not like me going to the rowdy Eagles games in the first place, and I don't want to be sent back to the bad place, and God, I miss Nikki so much, it hurts so bad and – â€Å" â€Å"Fuck Nikki,† Tiffany says, and then slips another spoonful of raisin bran into her mouth. I stare at her. She chews nonchalantly. She swallows. â€Å"Excuse me?† I say. â€Å"The Giants fan sounds like a total prick, as do your brother and your friend Scott. You didn't start the fight. You only defended yourself. And if Nikki can't deal with that, if Nikki won't support you when you are feeling down, then I say fuck her.† â€Å"Don't you ever talk about my wife like that,† I say, hearing the sharp anger in my voice. Tiffany rolls her eyes at me. â€Å"I won't allow any of my friends to talk about my wife like that.† â€Å"Your wife, huh?† Tiffany says. â€Å"Yes. My wife, Nikki.† â€Å"You mean your wife, Nikki, who abandoned you while you were recovering in a mental institution. Why isn't your wife, Nikki, sitting here with you right now, Pat? Think about it. Why are you eating fucking raisin bran with me? All you ever think about is pleasing Nikki, and yet your precious Nikki doesn't seem to think about you at all. Where is she? What's Nikki doing right now? Do you really believe she's thinking about you?† I'm too shocked to speak. â€Å"Fuck Nikki, Pat. Fuck her! FUCK NIKKI!† Tiffany slaps her palms against the table, making the bowl of raisin bran jump. â€Å"Forget her. She's gone. Don't you see that?† Our server comes over to the table. She puts her hands on her hips. She presses her lips together. She looks at me. She looks at Tiffany. â€Å"Hey, sister sailor-mouth,† the server says. When I look around, the other customers are looking at my foulmouthed friend. â€Å"This isn't a bar, okay?† Tiffany looks at the server; she shakes her head. â€Å"You know what? Fuck you too,† Tiffany says, and then she is striding across the diner and out the door. â€Å"I'm just doin' my job,† says the server. â€Å"Jeez!† â€Å"I'm sorry,† I say, and hand the server all the money I have – the twenty-dollar bill my mother gave me when I said I wanted to take Tiffany out for raisin bran. I asked for two twenties, but Mom said I couldn't give the server forty dollars when the meal only costs five, even after I told Mom about overtipping, which I learned from Nikki, as you already know. The waitress says, â€Å"Thanks, pal. But you better go after your girlfriend.† â€Å"She's not my girlfriend,† I say. â€Å"She's just a friend.† â€Å"Whatever.† Tiffany is not outside of the diner. I look down the street and see her running away from me. When I catch up to her, I ask what's wrong. She doesn't answer; she keeps running. At a quick pace, we jog side by side back into Collingswood, all the way to her parents' house, and then Tiffany runs around to the back door without saying goodbye.

Thursday, August 29, 2019

FDE 1000 part a Essay

I am currently working in a small privately run day nursery on a housing estate and have been there now for nearly six years. Within my setting I have two job roles both of which I am very clear as to what my roles and responsibilities are. Common core (2010,2ek) First of which is Deputy officer in charge which has been my role now for nearly two years and holds many responsibilities and challenges on a daily basis, my main responsibilities relate to assisting my manger in the day to day running of the setting and working very closely with all the staff, assisting in interviews working with current and new parents and also working very closely with other agencies involved in the nursery including speech therapist, child physiologists, ofsted and the local authority. My other job role is lead practitioner in the preschool room looking after children aged between two years to four years old. Here my role consists of working closely with my senior nursery practitioner in planning and observing the children in the preschool, helping to prepare them for their transition into primary school. CC (2010,4bs) implementing the daily routine, making sure health and safety towards the children and staff is maintained at all times and mentoring the other staff who work in the preschool room including nursery assistants and trainees. I have many strengths within my job roles but also many weaknesses which I work every day towards improving through observing what others do, listening to what others say and also through teaching myself new things. Completing my training needs analysis made me more aware of strengths and weakness I was unaware of which I had which has brought to light different things in which I need to work on improving to help maintain my knowledge and to help improve my practice. I have worked closely with my work-based mentor and the settings manager to put an action plan into place to improve my practice to the best it can be over the next twelve months, this action plan is based on what areas I have found I need to improve on using my training needs analysis. By completing my Training needs analysis and recently returning to working within a room in my setting which has only been for two months now, I have realised according to the early years teachers standards I do not have such a secure knowledge of early childhood development and I do need to work on how this leads to the children learning successfully when they get to school Early years teachers standards(2013, S3:1) I am not as fully aware of all the new EYFS changes as I thought I was which if I do not change this will effect the learning and development of the children within my care. I have found that when I am now completing the children’s learning journals I need a lot of support from the other staff members in my room to make sure I am observing each child correctly and that I am linking each observation to the correct area of the eyfs and not giving a false indication of where the children may be up to developmentally, before all the changes took place I was always very confident in this area. I do realise I know enough on the new eyfs to be able to plan and track the next steps of development for the children as I am aware of how to observe and find I am very confident in this particular area, but I also know that If I took part in some more research related to the this through reading books provided by my work setting and researching the many options available to me online that I will be able to give the children a better chance of being ready and prepared for their transition to primary school. I am also willing to search for possible training opportunities on the new EYFS through the national day nurseries association as we have took part in training through them in the past. I have put this on my action plan to complete by February of next year as I feel there is a lot of research that can be done to help me in this area and feel that I have given myself enough time to do this research. Also through reflection I have realised I need to update my safeguarding training. In my setting we have a lead safeguarding officer who is the nursery manager, recently my manger has had some prolonged time off and therefore it has become my duty to step into this role as lead safeguarding officer. I am aware of safeguarding and have some knowledge in this area although through looking at my training needs analysis and stepping up into this role it has made me realise I lack confidence in this area and need support. I am able to recognise when a child is at risk but need to build a lot of confidence around acting upon this through my own judgement rather than consistently needed advice and support EYTS (2013, S7:3) although I do understand when it comes to safeguarding issues advice and support from others is essential providing it is within reason and kept confidential. During my time at my setting I have dealt with some safeguarding instances as a support for my manager and parents. I am aware that my safeguarding training certificate Is now out of date and it is f great importance that I take part in a new training course to refresh my knowledge so I am able to act upon legal requirements regarding safeguarding and am more aware and confident in promoting the welfare of the children in my care EYTS (2013, S7:1). Also as I am now deputy officer in charge and lead practitioner within my setting I am aware that I will need to take part in a higher level safeguarding course as I have only took part in level one, I am now looking into doing my safeguarding level two for room leaders and management. By taking part in this training I will be more confident in employing practices which will help to promote the children’s health and safety within my setting EYTS (2013,S7:2). I have put this on my action plan to complete by April of next year which I feel gives me time to find the correct course suited to my needs and the needs of the children that I look after. When it comes to observing the children and writing the observations next steps I am quite confident in doing this where I start to lack the confidence is using these next steps to support the planning for each individual Childs needs, I always state a next step in my observation but don’t always add this to my planning to show progression and development in particular areas for the children EYTS (2013,S4:1). I am currently planning to take part in a staff-planning meeting CC(2010,1cs) this meeting will be regarding our settings planning to air my concerns about my knowledge and confidence and hope this will help by hearing other staff member’s views and advise as well as any concerns that they may have. I a hoping by doing this it will bring to light changes I need to make and possibly the whole setting need to make to be more able to plan balanced activities for the children based on the age and developmental stage and help myself be more confident in recognising other circumstances that may effect the children learning and development EYTS (2013,S4:2). I have added this as part of my action plan and hope to have this completed by December as I feel it is an important part of the day to day running of the setting to be able to have full understanding of the planning we do as if we do not understand it properly it can effect the children’s learning in the future and effect their transition into primary school. My job role as deputy officer in charge comes with a lot of responsibility I have never undergone any management training and have taught myself how to be efficient as deputy manager along the way over the past twenty two months. In many situations as part of my job role I am very confident and do believe I am a good positive leader, I listen to and take in everything that is said to me by other staff members and am very understanding towards all situations CC(2010,1as). I have took part in interviews, meetings with other professionals and staff meetings during my time as deputy but I have not taken lead role in any of these situations and believe I lack confidence in this area EYTS (2013, S8:3) I am aiming to take lead in my first staff meeting and have targeted this for January of next year so that I have sufficient amount of points to discuss during this meeting. I am hoping by doing this it will help to build my confidence as a deputy officer I charge in group situations where the focus is solely on myself EYTS (2013,S8:5). I am more confident in my job role as lead practitioner in preschool as I have more experience within this area although through recent reflection I have noticed I need to be more assertive to other staff around me and to delegate more tasks to the staff in my room to help them to develop their abilities in all areas, I need to be more aware that as lead practitioner other staff member will be looking up to me and what I do in my role as support for themselves EYTS(2013,S8:4) therefore if I teach my knowledge and understanding towards everything work related to the other staff members they will hopefully see me as a good role model for themselves as they work towards furthering their own careers in childcare CC(2010,4as) I will look at holding room meetings in the near future to help to build on this confidence I have in myself and my team will have in me we can use these meetings as a learning experience for all team members to work more efficiently together and help myself within my lead practitioner role. I will plan to place this alongside leading the whole settings staff meeting. I n my setting or any setting previous to this one I have not completed a personal development profile before, I have recently started to gather information to start creating my personal development profile since starting my course. I have set myself a target to have this completed as much as it can be up to now to help me with my development EYTS (2013,S8:6) By starting this file I have realised more of my strengths, weaknesses and achievements during my career so far. Over the next few months I am going to work with my work based mentor and nursery manager to organise my personal development profile efficiently and through the duration of this course and my future job roles and prospects I am going to work hard towards contributing to and improving my file to help benefit myself in anything I do in the future. The target I have set myself for having my file started is October as I feel it is an important part of the progress I have made so far in my career. I have realised since completing my training needs analysis that I have strengths and weakness in many areas of my job roles. I have not previously reflected upon my practices as a nursery nurse lead practitioner or deputy officer in charge and have realised how important self reflection is to help with gaining a more efficient knowledge of my own work and how I need to improve, in my main job role as deputy officer in charge not only is it important for myself to gain higher knowledge and keep up to date with changes that take place but it is also important to all other staff members as they look to me as their leader and my achievements and knowledge can have an effect on others and what they do in the future of their own careers. Self reflection has made me realise how much work I actually need to under go to make myself become the best I can possibly be for myself and for my whole team now and in the furute. EYTS (2013,S8:6,S8:7) Bibliography Children’s workforce development council (2010) common core of skills and knowledge for the children’s workforce National college for teaching and le adership (2013) teachers standards (early years)

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Mean-Variance Analysis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Mean-Variance Analysis - Essay Example The practical applications of portfolio theory abound in different segments of business and finance. This report seeks to explain the principles of diversification, and discuss some practical applications of portfolio theory in business and finance. Table of Contents Executive Summary 2 Table of Contents 3 Introduction 4 Principles of Diversification 4 Application of Portfolio Theory Mutual Funds 5 Application of Portfolio Theory Capital Allocation 7 Application of Portfolio Theory to Product Portfolio Decisions 8 Recommendations 10 Conclusion 10 References 11 Introduction Diversification is the premise that underlies portfolio theory (Markus, 2008). A portfolio is a combination of assets with a unified risk and return value expectation. Diversified portfolios ensure that loses are minimized if they occur (Hill, 2010). Mean-variance analysis helps determine the viability of an investment portfolio through the analysis of the portfolio risk. The theory relies on the use of portfolioâ €™s variance by comparing how assets in the portfolio vary with regard to each other (Diether, 2010). Mean-variance analysis for a diversified portfolio measures the portfolio’s efficiency. The most efficient portfolio has the highest expected return for a certain standard deviation. Mean-variance analysis application in business and finance helps in making the optimum decisions about the riskiness of a portfolio. This report seeks to demonstrate the practical applications of mean-variance analysis in portfolio theory. Principles of Diversification One of the principles of diversification is the belief that the portfolio, as a whole, is more important than the individual assets (Sumnicht, 2008). Secondly, investors are risk averse, and therefore will only invest in those portfolios which they belief will be adequately commensurate to their returns. Investment should be for the long term, probably up to ten years into the future (Sumnicht, 2008). Diversification presumes t hat markets are efficient, and will not have any unforeseen disruptions. Finally, each risk level bears its own unique optimal allocation with regard to asset class at which the portfolio bears maximum returns. Application of Portfolio Theory Mutual Funds Mutual funds are actively managed investment options in which investors pay investment companies to invest their money in stocks and pay a return on the same. The financial analysts at the mutual fund companies make use of portfolio theory in calculating risks on their clients’ portfolios. The portfolio theory offers a robust and comprehensive model on which to calculate risk and make sound investment decisions from the results (Sumnicht, 2008). However, mutual funds offer a unique challenge to the effectiveness of the portfolio theory in that the final return faces significant distortions due to high fees, hidden costs, unpredictable taxes, and uncertain stock investments (Rutner, 2004). A major part of the modern portfolio theory is the frontier curve. The frontier curve plots risk and return (FundsMover, 2012). According to the portfolio theory, the funds that lie on the curve form the maximum yield potential for a given level of risk, measured as standard deviation. The curve flattens as the return rises. The rate of return per risk decreases, and at some point the amount of risk an investor exposes himself/herself to increases considerably for a slight increase in the return. The standard deviation indicates the volatility of the mutual fund.

OUTLINE Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

OUTLINE - Assignment Example In the present age where there is growth hence need for more food, the pesticides should be used as much as critics may perceive them to be poisonous. The Environmental protection Agency provides that food may not harm individuals if they are washed (Robin, pp.30) I. To know if the food that individuals eat is safe, one should be aware of the amount of pesticides left on the food consumed. This amount of pesticide is referred to as pesticide residue. According to the Environmental Agency, there is an amount that when left on the food makes it safe. This amount that is permitted on the food is known as pesticide tolerance. For the determination on what is to be left, the Environmental protection Agency dictates environmental and health risks that pesticides pose (Robin, pp.30) a) For the persons who do not consume organic foods, there are measures that can be considered to make the food harmless. Firstly, if foods are washed the consumption of pesticides are reduced to some amounts. The most effective way of washing is by the use of running water rather than soaking or dunking as it washes away pesticide on the surface unlike the other two that scatter them on the surface b) Apart from the washing effectiveness can be achieved by scrubbing vegetables and fruits like root and melon vegetables like root and melons vegetables. The leafy vegetables outer layer should be cast off to lessen exposure. Peeling vegetables and fruits if need be may be of help. Skin and fat can be sheared from poultry, fish and meat to lessen the pesticide residue amount that is in fats. In addition, eating various vegetables and fruits limits exposure to one pesticide type. A dry cloth should be used in drying of food to avoid contamination from towel. The consumers ought to know that organic food contains pesticides. In fact 95% of additives in organic food are organic. I. There are ways to decrease the pesticide amount that are got on foods, although

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

FSA and stiffer penalties to individuals Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

FSA and stiffer penalties to individuals - Essay Example FSA also protects consumers by reducing financial crimes in the financial markets (Davidson 2010). In the past few weeks, FSA has imposed heavy penalties on individuals for regulatory breaches. FSA has been much more efficient in ensuring prosecution of individuals who breach regulatory requirements. FSA has implemented a new policy that is aimed at deterring financial crimes through imposing penalties that reflect the magnitude of the regulatory breach, or financial scandal (Pettet 2001). The recent penalties are based on numerous factors including the need to achieve an appropriate deterrence effect and removal of any profits that may have accrued due to the regulatory breach. FSA has also considered the mitigating and aggravating factors and need to apply any settlement discount in imposing the high penalties (Davidson 2010). Main legal aspects of the cases The Financial Services and Markets Act 2000 and Market Abuse regulations of 2005 mainly deal with insider dealings and market price manipulation misconducts. The offence must occur in the prescribed markets. The prescribed markets include the markets governed by UK recognized investment exchanges (RIE) and other markets in the EEA countries. Some of the financial markets in the UK, where such market abuse occur include ICE futures, London stock exchange and London Metal exchange limited. Other markets include the NYMEX Europe limited and EDX London Ltd (Davidson 2010). The qualifying investments that are governed by FSA market abuse regulations include the transferable securities like shares, securitized debts and bonds that are regulated by the ISD directive. Other securities include the forward interest agreements, currency and interest rate swaps, future contracts and derivative securities. Firms are required to report any suspect dealings and implement adequate internal control and compliance mechanisms (Davidson 2010). FSA has the powers to deal with misconduct that is not necessarily market abuse bu t that breach the guiding principles of FSA. Sections 401 and 402 allow FSA to prosecute various financial markets offenses under the Financial Services and Markets Act of 2000 and any other relevant legislation (Pettet 2001). Some offenses include offering securities for sale to the public without publishing a prospectus since FSA listing requirements under Section 85(2) require the issuer to provide a prospectus before the actual listing. Section 397 of the Act prohibits firms and individuals from making fraudulent and misleading statements and manipulating the market fundamentals (Pettet 2001). Insider dealing is one of the criminal offenses that have led to high penalties to individuals. Insider trading is a criminal offence if the individual transacts the securities with inside information, or encourages another person to transact in the securities while in possession of inside information that is not available to other market participants (Davidson 2010). If the insider avails information to a market player other than in the ordinary performance of his duties or employment, FSA will consider such act as criminal insider dealing. Section 52(3) outlines that the above offenses are committed when dealing with a security in the regulated market or where transactions of price affected securities are executed by an individual using the inside information or are conducted by a professional intermediary using such inside

Monday, August 26, 2019

Summary & Critical Response Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Summary & Critical Response - Assignment Example The last argument of the author is that money students get for their work is spent carelessly. There are some students who save money for their college education. There are also some hard-working teenagers who need to work to help their families to make both ends meet. The majority of students, however, spend their earnings on fashionable clothing and entertainments. Overall, Etzioni comes to the conclusion that money quest should not be the most important thing in students’ life; they need to pay more attention to their education to find appropriate jobs in their later lives. Etzioni uses a lot of logical arguments to support his point of view, but it is not reasonable to claim that part-time jobs have no use for students at all. Together with all negative outcomes listed by Etzioni, they bring many relevant skills not only for future employment, but for life in general. Etzioni addresses this article to parents, while he forgets to mention many benefits students get when they work part-time. First of all, any work teaches students to organize their time in order to do everything they need during the day. Any work requires knowledge of time management to structure the day properly. Students who have to combine work and per-time jobs are often more organized and effective in their future lives. The second benefit of part-time jobs is the experience of socialization in totally different environment. Students are school have totally different interests and aim in their lives. People at work often have many things in common. Communicating with people at work can bring new ideas and insights to students. Moreover, they can switch the activity from intellectual to physical, which is also good to add some diversity to their lives. It is difficult not to agree with Etzioni that work at fast food chains is not a decent work. However, every work experience is life experience. Students who never work during their high school face

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Locke's point on view about empiristics Assignment

Locke's point on view about empiristics - Assignment Example Explain why Berkeley maintains that if empiricists take these ideas seriously, Locke's account actually leads to radical doubts about the existence of the material world. What solution to this problem does Berkeley think that empiricists should accept? Berkeley's solution, however, is widely seen to be highly problematic. Which of these two problems---the (alleged) problems facing Locke or Berkeley's solution to these problems---seems to be the most damaging or difficult problem facing empiricism? Why? Critically defend your position. The empiricist claim of Locke proposes that knowledge only comes from experience and feeling while the rationalists asserts that reason is already an innate attribute and is already previously present in Descartes Cartesian proof. Locke posits that the human consciousness evolves and therefore starts as an â€Å"empty mind† or a tabula rasa. It continuously evolves with experience, learning and sensation which are the sources of our ideas. The ra tionalists like Rene Descartes however, presupposes that reason is already inherent in man. It is already there even before he or she attempts to evolve or make a conscious effort to even think. For Descartes, the mere exercise of thinking is already a validation that one exists. Even the process of doubting one’s existence, in Descartes perspective, is already a proof that one exists due to the sheer exercise of thinking.

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Distribution & Pricing Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Distribution & Pricing - Coursework Example In order to decide on the pricing strategy of the restaurant, let us first decide on the type of the restaurant we will be operating with. In this scenario, let us consider that I am handling a fast food restaurant. In this case, the target market will not be very specific and we can target each and every income group. So we will be going ahead with a generic pricing strategy for this restaurant. Restaurants are doing great in the event that they have a 5 percent profit edge, as indicated by "Forbes" magazine. Since restaurants have a little profit edge, they have to execute successful sustenance pricing procedures to stay ready to go. Inquiring about variances in nourishment costs, the costs of contending restaurants and client interest will help to set menu costs and manage what kind of profit could be normal (Von Matterhorn, n.d.). Restaurants ought to utilize cost-in addition to pricing to surety a profit. Cost-in addition to pricing incorporates all the overhead expenses that happen when running a restaurant, including rent, compensation for holding up staff and cooks, and gas and power to power the kitchen and lounge area. Next the profit edge needs to be considered. The manager needs to procure a profit to make the business advantageous to keep open. This profit incorporates compensation for the holder, and in addition the capacity to lead repairs on the restaurant and stretch the restaurant, if fundamental. Add the fancied profit rate to the overhead expenses rate. This rate ought to be included onto the expense of any sustenance thing, prompting costs that pay for nourishment and overhead expenses, and bring about a profit. When selling online, the pricing of the product plays a major role. The price of the food product will be decided based on the production cost of the item. As discussed earlier, it was decided that restaurants do well if they manage to keep a 5% profit margin. However in this scenario, the pricing has

Friday, August 23, 2019

Riordan Manufacturing Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Riordan Manufacturing - Essay Example The first and the foremost requirement is to keep track of the information regarding past sales and this is deemed important as it helps keep track of the income and sales in addition to enabling the company to provide better services to the customer. Another important aspect is that the migration towards the CRM system will reduce the storage costs by huge margins. In addition to storing information concerning past sales, the company is also desirous of having all details concerned with market surveys to be stored in the new information system that is proposed to be developed as it enabled the company to refer past trends with ease and accuracy thereby enabling it to take the appropriate decisions. A major requirement of the new software system is that it must provide an integrated environment wherein all salespersons would be able to maintain their individual information, but the data would always be available so that need of the customer can be better anticipated. The company is also desirous of using the new system that is

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Lego Case Study Essay Example for Free

Lego Case Study Essay In this case , LEGO needs a flexible and robust IT infrastructure with business intelligence capabilities that could help management perform better forecasting and planning. So they chose to implement SAPs Supply Chain Management (SCM) , Product Lifecycle Management (PLM), and Enterprise Resoures Planning (ERP) modules. In the ERP module includes the Human Capital Management (HCM) application for personnel administration and development. These features such as â€Å"Talent Manager† as well those for handling employee administration, reporting, and travel and time management. These advanced features allow LEGO’s HR personnel to select the best candidates, schedule their training, and create a stimulus plan to retain them. b. Discussion of why the issue/problem is important for Information Systems discipline? IT infrastructure combine with business intelligence capabilities that could help management perform better forecasting and planning. Depth integration of data mining and information systems, able to establish a new business intelligence system to increase profits and reduce costs. In this case , SAPs ERP-HCM module effectively help LEGO’s manager to select the best candidates. It is also possible to include performance measurements and get a real-time insight into HR trends. So LEGO’s manager able to track employee’s leadership potential, develop their careers, and forecast the recruiting of new employees with certain skills. In life, the data is ubiquitous, and how do we treat and use of data? Data analysis must incorporate with information, less of data analysis, probability of failure for decision-making will climbing. Data analysis is the basis of the Decision Sciences, data analysis tells just a trend, predict a phenomenon. These trends and phenomena will change over time, no one can grasp the long-lasting. Data analysis to grasp the trend, can tell you at different times with different variables can produce different views, and the mode how will correct. This reminds me of a movie, â€Å"Moneyball†, the film based on Michael Lewis’s excellent book about the business of baseball, the basic idea is: Oakland Athletics general manager Billy Beane turned the baseball industry on its head by using objectivity nd data to help pick a baseball team, instead of subjectivity and gut. It was controversial and not perfect, but he did a pretty good job at it. He broke the conventional method, using historical data and data mining method to build the evaluation model, using low cost to purchase those underrated players. Creating a team has the ability to against the famous New York Yankees. Rely on intuition to make decisions has passed, Now the most important thing is effectively to use data analysis, combining with other disciplines, especially with the combination of information systems. . Identification of who are the key stakeholders and how they are impacted by the issue/problem. LEGO’s CEO and head of HR personnel, they can do this by ERP-HCM to predict and pick the talent they need, and handling employee administration, reporting, and travel and time management. SAP’s business suite supports databases from different vendors, so that abroad managers enable to have direct access to the database system from the company’s various locations. d. What is required for the successful continuation of the new method? SAPsbusiness suite is based on a flexible three-tier client-server architecture. In the first tier, a client interface submits user’s requests. The application servers receive and process clients‘ requests. In turn, these application servers send the processed requests to the database system. Therefore, the link between each layer is necessary. Compatibility between the different databases is also an indispensable factor. Most importantly, data analysis must incorporate with information system. e. Can you think of any other alternatives? SAS Business Intelligence also offers an integrated, robust and flexible presentation layer for the full breadth of SAS Analytics capabilities, including statistics, predictive analytics, data and text mining, forecasting, and optimization – all integrated within the business context for better, faster decision making. OSI Consulting also provide infrastructure strategy and planning services evaluate and prioritize IT optimization options and define a road map of activities that can reduce costs and improve utilization using time-tested methods and best-practice analysis. 2. Answer all the Questions at the end of the case correctly (50) f. Explain the role of the database in SAPsthree-tier system. The third tier database system, This tier keeps data neutral and independent from application servers or business logic. Giving data its own tier also improves scalability and performance. Database plays the role of the terminal server, can be used to store or access data. g. Explain why distributed architectures are flexible. The distributed architectures enables authorized personnel to have direct access to the database system from the company’s various locations. A distributed database is a database that is under the control of a central database management system in which storage devices are not all attached to a common CPU. It may be stored in multiple computers located in the same physical location, or may be dispersed over a network of interconnected computers. Collections of data can be distributed across multiple physical locations. A distributed database can reside on network servers on the Internet, on corporate intranets or extranets, or on other company networks. Replication and distribution of databases improve database performance at end-user worksites. . Identify some of the business intelligence features included in SAPsbusiness software suite. The SCM module includes essential features such as supply chain monitoring and analysis as well as forecasting, planning, and inventory optimization. The PLM module enables managers to optimize development processes and systems. The ERP module includes, among other applications, the Human Capital Management (HCM) application for personnel administration and development. These features such as â€Å"Talent Manager† as well those for handling employee administration, reporting, and travel and time management. These advanced features allow LEGO’s HR personnel to select the best candidates, schedule their training, and create a stimulus plan to retain them. It is also possible to include performance measurements and get a real-time insight into HR trends. LEGO’s manager able to track employee’s leadership potential, develop their careers, and forecast the recruiting of new employees with certain skills. i. What are the main advantages and disadvantages of having multiple databases in a distributed architecture? Explain. The primary advantage of distributed database systems is the ability to share and access data in a reliable and efficient manner. Advantages: Improved scalability Unlike a single-database system, in which the amount of data that can be stored depends on the limitations of one database, a distributed-database system is easily scalable and, therefore, set up for growth. As more sites or regions become part of the Teamcenter Enterprise network, you can expand the database topology to include new databases. With multiple databases, Teamcenter Enterprise data is divided into logical pieces, so that users usually work only with the data that is most applicable to them. Improved performance The majority of database inserts, queries, updates, and deletions are on user data; therefore, a distributed-database environment separates user data from centralized or shared data and stores it locally. Local user databases reduce network traffic and eliminate network bottlenecks on most transactions. Local user databases also distribute the user load in terms of system resources, such as memory. In addition, a distributed-database environment separates the user data from the data related to operational or background processing, which also reduces the amount of local system resources used. Increased availability Because user databases are independent, if one database is unavailable, other databases can continue to work. In a distributed-database environment, selected classes are replicated in other databases when they are created, deleted, or updated. This replication increases availability. By separating data, administrators have more flexibility in determining the frequency and types of backups needed for different types of data. This also increases availability. Disadvantages: Degradation of performance on a small network One user action can cause activity in several databases, some of which may be remote. The additional overhead of these transactions can be a performance penalty when the total amount of data in the network is small. Users also see slower performance when accessing user data that is not local. Increased use of database space The schema of all databases must be the same, that is, every table must exist in every database. Therefore, database space is used for tables that may never be accessed. When the number of tables is very large, the amount of space used this way can be significant. Administrators must use database storage parameters to size tables and reduce database space consumption.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Tokyo Drift Essay Example for Free

Tokyo Drift Essay â€Å"The Fast and the Furious: Tokyo Drift† by Justin Lin is a film that allows viewers to attain a heightened level of understanding of the concept of belonging. It extensively explores the notions of separation, connection, displacement and acceptance throughout varying contexts to demonstrate that belonging carries different meaning to individuals. From the beginning it is evident to the audience that the main character, Sean, is no stranger to displacement as his mother states â€Å"This is our third town in two years† implying that they regularly change their location of residency. Her tone suggests that their continuous displacement is undesirable as it increases the difficulty associated with establishing connections with people and places. Sean, who is American, is then forced to move to Tokyo after repeated law infringements for street racing. A montage is shown of him travelling through the city and attending school where he is highlighted as being a single, lone, confused westerner among thousands of Japanese people living their daily lives. This montage is a visual technique which communicates the main character’s feeling of disconnection by depicting him and his actions differently to the rest of his social surrounding. Sean soon establishes a connection with the young street racing community of Tokyo which develops from a common interest in cars. This connection allows room for acceptance by his peers, however their full acceptance of him is still hindered by his many other differences. These remaining obvious differences, explored through the contexts of race, language, values and environment, lead to him being named â€Å"gaijin†, the Japanese word for ‘outsider’ by some within the street racing community. To those that befriend Sean, their acceptance is derived from his connection in the context of an interest in cars. To those that label him as an outsider, they believe he shares no connection with them as he is from a different race, country and culture. This effectively conveys the idea that the concept of belonging carries different meaning to individuals. Later in the story Sean gets to know an important female character, Neala, who appears have a well established identity within the street racing community of Tokyo and he is told that she was once also called a gaijin. Sean then says â€Å"I thought you were born here? † and she replies â€Å"Outsider can mean many different things†. While she appears to have a place in society, other contextual differences not evident in the film, cause her to feel separated; however Sean’s perception of belonging creates an image of her feeling connected with her social surroundings. Through the exploration of different components within the concept of belonging such as difference, connection, displacement and acceptance, â€Å"The Fast and the Furious: Tokyo Drift† is an excellent text in allowing viewers to develop a heightened understanding of the concept of belonging.

Effect of Technology on Public Transportation

Effect of Technology on Public Transportation What evidence of the social shaping of technology, if any, is provided by the history of public transport in London Paris (1820-1990)? The following will discuss the evidence or otherwise of the social shaping of technology with regard to public transport in London and Paris between 1820 and 1990. During this period technological advances in public transport were pronounced and whether they shaped social changes will be outlined below. London and Paris are apt examples to use as they developed rapidly during the 19th Century and had continued to change until the end of the period. In 1820 both London and Paris were expanding cities yet their transport systems with the exception of canals to London had hardly changed at all in hundreds of years. However, the impact of industrialisation and urbanisation would mean that London and Paris would need the improvements in public transport to get their populations to work, school and home again. These advances in technology in turn would bolster the social and economic changes that had fostered them in the first place. The British population increased from 10 million in 1800 to 36 million in 1990 whilst that of France went from 27 million to 40 million (Roberts, 1996, p.322). In the same period the population of London went from 900,000 to 4.7 million whilst that of Paris went from 600,000 to 3.6 million. Most of the rise in the London and Paris populations resulted from the increased migration promoted by public transport (Roberts, 1996, p.322). The term ‘commuter’ came into everyday use during the 1850s to describe the people that travelled into and around London daily to work. These commuters travelled by train and in any of the 800 horse drawn bus services. After 1862 commuters could travel on the first complete section of the underground from Paddington to Farrington Street. The underground was developed and built by partners including the City of London and Great Western Railway. The construction of such systems in London and Paris showed great engineering skills not least because of the need to tunnel or bridge the Thames and the Seine respectively (Evans, 2000, p.101). The Paris metro was opened on July 19 1900 when it only went from Porte de Vincennes to Porte Mailliat. Like the London underground the metro was extended much further than the original line. Line 1 for example now runs from Chateau de Vincent to La Defense. The Paris metro gained a reputation for not only being more efficient that the London underground but also more elegant. The metro resulted from the engine ering know how of Fulgence Bienvenue and the architectural elegance of Hector Guimard. The metro has 211 kilometres or 130 miles of track that serves 380 stations that means that any within Paris is merely 500 metres away from the nearest station. The metro is slightly bigger than half of the London underground yet has a hundred stations more (Mills, 1997-2005). Improvements in technology meant that more people travelled to London and Paris to live and work, thus more of them could travel within and beyond the city limits. That was due to the increase in the provision of public transport. In the early part of the period 1820 to 1990 was the advent of the railways. The first successful rail service between Stockton and Darlington was developed by George Stephenson provided the impetus for a great expansion of railways (Hobsbawm, 1962, p.187). As respective capital cities London and Paris were logically at the centre of their national rail networks. Technically speaking, although the train services into, from and in London were providing a public service they were privately owned until after 1945. Britain had a head start over France when it came to the amount and density or rail and track not only in the capital but nationally as well, over 750 kilometres squared compared to between 250-499 kilometres squared for France (Hobsbawm, 1975, p.310 ). The advent of the railways meant that the Londoners and Parisians could have better links to the provinces, also cities such as Newcastle and Marseilles were easier to reach. The railways also meant that other parts of their cities were easier to get to (Hobsbawm, 1975, p.56). Southern Railway that ran the majority of train services in and around London was the only private rail operator (before nationalisation) that was regularly in profit (Black, 2000, p.89). Linked to the spread of the railways was the adoption of underground – systems in both London and Paris. The underground and metro systems offered the capacity and ability to carry millions of commuters daily without causing as much disruption as having all the rail tracks above ground. London expanded its operative underground -system in 1890 and Paris alongside other cities followed within a decade. The London underground is roughly double the size of the Paris metro since the completion of its last extension in 1999 with 392 kilometres or 244 miles of track with 280 stations (Crystal, 2003, p.950). In contrast to the railways the London underground continued to expand during the 1960s and beyond. The new Victoria Line of the 1960s was followed by the Jubilee Line and the extension of the system to Heathrow Airport in the 1970s (Black, 2000, p. 91). The underground systems gave the advantage of transporting more people with greater speed than other forms of both private and public transport. At that point cars and buses were barely in existence. Even as cars became more common they remained out of the price range of many Londoners and Parisians until the 1950s. Using public transport had the advantage of being cheaper without the need to worry about parking or having to stay stuck in traffic jams (Black, 2000, p.86). Another way that public transport has made on the social shaping of technology in London and Paris was the role of buses. Prior to the invention of the internal combustion engine there had been the horse driven bus. However, the buses driven by petrol or diesel engines were able to carry more passengers further than their horse driven predecessors. Buses could pick passengers up from places where the train and the underground did not go. Buses were introduced into London and other British cities from 1898 (Black, 2000, p.87). Buses tended to operate later services than the trains did in London. Within London and outside it, train companies before the Second World War often ran bus services. The Second World War led to London’s travel infrastructure been badly damaged whilst Paris had escaped heavy bombing although other parts of the French rail and roads had been destroyed (Black, 2000, p.88). In most respects the coming of railways amply demonstrated the social shaping of technology. It helped to speed the movement of people from the smaller towns and villages to major cities such as London and Paris. The railways allowed goods or people to travel much faster and also generated great wealth for their investors. Such wealth was shown in the elegant stations such as King’s Cross and Paris du Nord. The railways employed thousands directly or indirectly whilst transporting millions more (Hobsbawm, 1987, p.27). France had been slower in building railways than Britain yet managed to double the amount of track it had between 1880 and 1913 (Hobsbawm, 1987, p.52). The railway workers and other transport workers shaped society in ways linked to technology or in times of industrial disputes the refusal to use that technology. Both the British and French transport workers had a reputation for their radical trade unionism. In the British General strike of May 1926 support among st London’s transport workers was solid and not a bus, train or underground train ran for nine days (Brendon, 2000, pp 46-47). France tended to be more prone to strikes than Britain. In the summer of 1936, Paris and the rest of the country came to a halt after a series of strikes spread to the transport workers after starting at Renault (Brendon, 2000, p. 296). Even in more recent times strikes on the metro are frequent, especially if the French trade unions are unhappy with their government. Unlike their counterparts in London most Parisians can walk to work if that happens (Mills, 1997-2005). There was another development in public transport that allowed some social shaping due to technology, the aircraft. At first air travel was restricted to the rich, the military and cargo carriers. However the increasing cheapness of flights and the opening of airports such as Charles de Gaulle and Heathrow near Paris and London respectively made package holidays and internal business flights easier (Hobsbawm, 1994, p. 15). It was in the production of the supersonic airliner Concorde that both countries collaborated to show how technologically advanced they were. Concorde would allow people to travel to and from London and Paris in luxury as well as been good for national prestige (Crystal, 2003, p. 214). Whilst the French have made efforts to maintain and modernise their rail network in Paris and nationally the decline in the British railways has been marked. The total mileage of track halved between 1945 and 1992 whilst the number of car owners increased twenty fold in the same peri od. That meant that public transport was taken more seriously in Paris than London (Black, 2000, pp. 90-92). Therefore, it can be argued that social shaping technology was evidenced by public transport in London and Paris between 1820 and 1990. It was the development and expansion of the railways that greatly contributed to the expansion of London and Paris during the 19th Century. The railways generated wealth and trade as well as bringing people and jobs to both London and Paris. The development of underground-systems also contributed to social shaping and more and more people were able to commute to work and school. Public transport was further enhanced with the introduction of powered buses whilst the availability of cycles and later cars meant that not everybody had to rely on public transport. Whilst the greater availability of public transport had made social shaping changes the wider availability of cars led to more people moving out of the cities centres in to the suburbs. Public transport still remains vital for millions of Londoners and Parisians and commuters that travel from fu rther afield to go about their everyday business in London or Paris. Bibliography Black, J (2000) Modern British History since 1900, Macmillan Foundations, Macmillan, London Brendon, P (2000) The Dark Valley – A Panorama of the 1930s, Jonathan Cape, London Crystal, D (2003) The Penguin Concise Encyclopaedia, Penguin Group, London Hobsbawm, E (1962) The Age of Revolution 1789-1848, Weidenfeld Nicholson, London Hobsbawm, E (1975) The Age of Capital 1848-1875, Weidenfeld Nicholson, London Hobsbawm, E (1994) The Age of Extremes – the short Twentieth Century 1914-1991, Michael Joseph, London Mills, I C (1997-2005) The Paris metro www.discoverfrance (Barry Vale)

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Negative Effects of Media Violence on Children Essay -- Television Viol

Americans have felt a growing uneasiness from the growing problem of youth violence with teens from the ages of twelve to eighteen. It is a controversial subject that is an increasingly rising with families and the in the government. Some people believe that the reason behind this national problem is because families are no longer a united unit and are not home to take responsibility of watching their children. There are others who believe that it is the influence of the media and technology. The issue this paper will examine whether youth violence has risen from unattached parenting or because the lack of censorship and influence of the media. Through the presentation of documented support, it will be shown the rising rate of youth violence is the result of the lack of censorship of the media. According to psychologist Craig Anderson, research shows that violent video games, films, television, and music in the media increase the probability of violent and aggressive behavior in long-term and immediate situations within youth (81). In the start of this decade it was estimated that 46 percent of all homes with children have accesses to at least one television set, gaming console, a personal computer or both (â€Å"Violence and the Media† 267). However, this percentage has changed and is growing everyday with the advancement in technology and because it’s easily accessible. The Federal Trade Commission reports that companies’ media and marketing plans advertise their products targeting media outlets most likely to reach children under 17. Using outlets such as commercials during the most popular programs such as South Park, websites such as, and teen hangouts such as pizza parlors or ... ...010. â€Å"New Technology and Youth Violence.†, n.d. Web. 27 Nov. 2010. Raspberry, William. â€Å"Violence on Television Begets Real Violence.† Times Union [Albany] 4 Feb. 1994, Three Star ed.: A11. LexisNexis Academic. Web. 1 Dec. 2010. Spencer, Terry. â€Å"Boy’s Murder Defense: Pro Wrestling Made Me Do It.† Charleston Gazette 14 Jan. 2001, sec. A: 5. LexisNexis Academic. Web. 2 Dec. 2010. Strahota, Hilary. â€Å"Facebook Partnership, Tip Line Add to Growing List of Anti-bullying Tools.† States News Service [Washington] 12 Nov. 2010, sec. B12: n. pag. LexisNexis Academic. Web. 2 Dec. 2010. Surette, Ray. â€Å"Media, Violence, Youth, and Society.† World & I 9.7 (1994): 370+. Points of View Reference Center. Web. 5 Dec. 2010. â€Å"Violence and the Media.† Congressional Digest 78.11 (1999): 266+. Academic Search Premier. Web. 22 Nov. 2010.

Monday, August 19, 2019

The Mother Daughter Relationship in I Stand Here Ironing by Tillie Olse

The Mother Daughter Relationship in "I Stand Here Ironing" by Tillie Olsen 'I stand here ironing,' a unique phrase uttered by a woman in her conquest of life. It may seem like an unwanted phrase to many, but it has deep meaning behind it. This phrase is almost whispered by the narrator of ?I Stand Here Ironing,? Tillie Olsen, and also by many other mothers going through an important stage in their lives. The stage in life that the mother in the story is going through is called child development, and within this complicated stage arise many new worlds of imagination, emotional journeys, and soothing memories. The whole story is based around a mother's view, and joy, of her child growing up in a world filled with barriers and hurdles that she must overcome. The entire point of view is that of the narrator, as a mother concerned with the way her child is being raised and the hardships she must overcome. She also witnesses her daughter?s happiness and the colorful meanings of life that she discovers herself. I believe this story is based around the hardships of growing up as a woman in the Nineteen-hundreds. It has all the symbolism of being a true feminist short story. As Elaine Orr expresses in her criticism, Tillie Olsen and a Feminist Spiritual Vision, about how ?Suddenly Emily is emblematic of all children, of the next generation??(EO 84) that the times were of the early feministic era. When feminists were about conquering oppression and rising above the rest of the doubt that society places upon them. She talks about how ?Emily will not survive. If she does not believe in future presence, in beginnings latent in her own life, all is lost: past, present, and future.?(EO 84) expressing once again how the times were differen... ...cts of the mother and the descriptions, which are presented to us from her, are very conclusive and need to be further examined to draw out any further conclusions on how she ?really? felt. The mother-daughter relationship between the narrator and her daughter bring up many questions as to their exact connection. At times it seems strong, as when the narrator is relating her childhood and recounting the good times. Other times it is very strained. All in all the connection between the two seems to be a very real and lifelike account of an actual mother-daughter relationship. Bibliography: 1. Orr, Elaine. Tillie Olsen and a Feminist Spiritual Vision. Jackson: University Press, 1987 2. Responding to Literature. ?I Stand Here Ironing?. Mayfield Publishing Company: Judith Stanford. 1999. Pg. 815-821.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Dostoevsky and Psychology :: Biography Biographies Essays

Dostoevsky and Psychology "A sick man's dreams are often extraordinarily distinct and vivid and extremely life-like. A scene may be composed of the most unnatural and incongruous elements, but the setting and presentation are so plausible, the details so subtle, so unexpected, so artistically in harmony with the whole picture, that the dreamer could not invent them for himself in his waking state. . . "1 Fyodor Dostoevsky's remarkable insight into the psychology of man is seen here in the development of Raskolnikov's dream on the beating of a horse by drunken peasants. The dream is significant on several planes, most notably in the parallel of events in the dream with Raskolnikov's plan to murder the old pawnbroker. It also serves as perhaps the most direct example of the inseparable tie between events of the author's life with the psychological evolution of his protagonists, as well as lesser characters, through the criminal minds of Raskolnikov, Rogozhin, Stavrogin, and Smerdyakov, and into the familial relationships of The Brother's Karamazov.2 Traditional interpretation of literature from a psychoanalytic standpoint has relied extensively upon the work of Sigmund Freud. In the case of Dostoevsky, however, this method is both anachronistic and inadequate. Dostoevsky's great works, considered individually or holistically, though fictional, established him as one of the forefathers of psychoanalysis, and a predecessor to Freud.3 Indeed Freud himself acknowledged that "the poets" discovered the unconscious before he did,4 stating further in a letter to Stefan Zweig, "Dostoevsky 'cannot be understood without psychoanalysis- i.e., he isn't in need of it because he illustrates it himself in every character and every sentence.'"5 There is, however, a complementary relationship between Dostoevsky and Freud brought about through the striking clinical accuracy of psychological traits exhibited both individually in Dostoevsky's characters, as well as in reflecting the author's own mental processes. Thus, it is necessary first to exami ne Freud as a point of departure before looking at modern alternatives of psychoanalytical method. Freud on the Oedipus complex Epileptic seizures plagued Dostoevsky throughout the last thirty-four years of his life, occurring about once a month on average, and consisting of "A brief, intensely exalted, premonitory sensation, loss of consciousness, convulsions, and a lingering depression with vague feelings of criminal guilt for three to eight days."6 Freud delves into the psychological roots of this illness in his essay "Dostoevsky and Parricide", calling into question Dostoevsky's "alleged epilepsy". "It is highly probable", he states, "that this so-called epilepsy was only a symptom of his neurosis and must accordingly be classified as hystero-epilepsy- that is, as severe hysteria.

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Barriers Of Implementing Technology In Education

Over the past fifty years or so, teachers and parents have read and heard forecasts of an impending educational revolution each time a new technological innovation arrived on the scene. Fifty years ago, radio broadcasting was suppose to revolutionize education. Soon thereafter, teaching machines were predicted to bring sweeping changes.Next, television was touted as the medium that would solve problems facing education. Now, the computer is being hailed as the next technological innovation to have a major impact on the educational process.Modern education, in fact, has sustained a long-term interest in the use of educational technology as a means to design more efficient learning opportunities for students. There are tools on how to use the new electronic technologies and this includes: skills software; computer graphics; word processors; telecommunications; simulations; multimedia/hypermedia; virtual reality and distributed learning.. In a field with such a wide range of powerful an d complex tools, experts cannot help but disagree about what teachers need to know and even where they should begin.Not long ago, many experts advised teachers who wanted to become capable computer users learn to write computer programs in languages such as FORTRAN and BASIC. To become computer literate, many assumed that teachers needed to know enough about the technical workings of computers to follow. Few people today believe that teachers need this much technical skill, but textbooks still provide wide varieties of information for beginning technology users. The following steps are needed to take by the beginning technology users: †¢ Develop a philosophy.Teachers must observe where current resources and types of applications fit in the history of the field. Then they must begin developing personal perspectives on the current and future role of technology in education and in their own classrooms. †¢ Purchase products. Teachers must become informed, knowledgeable consume rs of computer products and select wisely among available alternatives. †¢ Identify the problems. Teachers must be able to troubleshoot computer systems they use frequently in order to discriminate between problems they can correct and those that will require outside help.†¢ Speak the language. Sufficient understanding of the terms and concepts related to technology allows users to exchange information with other teachers and experts and to ask and answer questions to expand their knowledge. †¢ See where technology fits in education. In perhaps the most important- and the most difficult- challenge, teachers must identify specific school activities where technology can help to improve existing conditions or to create important educational opportunities that did not exist without it. As part of this process, teachers decide what they need to make these changes occur.This process of determining where and how technology fits is known among users of educational technology as integration. Successful integration requires a connection between how people learn and how teachers employ technology to assist and enhance this learning. DISCUSSION Computer networks offer a significant opportunity for improving the educational climate, especially in situation calling for teaching at a distance in settings which are either primarily educational or primarily business oriented. Computer-based education networks are characterized by a large-scale central computer connected by a communication link to remote terminals.Students work at the remote terminals either individually or in groups. The major advantage of computer-based systems to the student is the potential for individualizing instruction.. Student progress can be continuously evaluated and the student can be assigned to appropriate learning activities. Individualization of instruction is possible because of the one-to-one interaction between the educational system and the student. As far as the student is co ncerned, this is a confidential interaction between himself or herself and the system.The fact that the student is one of many persons using the system at the same time, and the fact that a record is often made of the students’ progress, do not seem to detract from the feeling of individuality and confidentiality on the part of the student. The significant problem for many students in using computer-based system, especially adults, is the typing ability required for the use of the system. The need for typing can be minimized by the use of programming techniques that limit the complexity of responses. System malfunctions are another disadvantage of computing networks and are very frustrating to the individual student.Malfunctions can occur either in the computing itself or in the communication links between the computer and the terminal. While the geographic and time-scheduling of computer-based systems can be an advantage, it can also be a limitation. The terminals themselves and communication links are expensive. At present they cannot be universally located throughout the world. The distribution of other educational materials, such as books, can be accomplished with considerably more ease. Information technology (IT) can be a very effective distance learning medium.The IT package consisted of word processing, spreadsheet and communications software (via Telecom Gold) and a personal computer. IT is an interesting teacher. It can make learning easier and more attractive; for example, a resource for learning about animals could include written information about their habitat, and pictures of it. There could be video clips showing the animal running, accompanied by animated diagrams of the operation of their skeletal structure and muscles. IT is also a patient and responsive teacher. Software does not tire of waiting for a response.Computer Aided Learning software can give pupils immediate feedback. Pupils are rewarded as they make incremental progress. T his can be particularly helpful where pupils have learning difficulties. Rewards can be structured so that pupils are motivated to learn. IT is pupil centered. Unlike traditional didactic teching, strategies for teaching IT will emphasize pupil centered, resource-based learning. This helps IT teachers with the particularly exaggerated problems they have in planning and controlling continuity, progression, differentiation, and breadth and depth of learning.After citing some of the benefits derived from using IT, what therefore, has inhibited a greater use of IT in management education? One reason may be a paucity of good quality educational material for use with computers. Another reason may be a lack of incentive or a resistance to change. Economic reason is also a possibility. Until very recently the use of IT as an instrument for individual learning has been prohibitively expensive. However, the reduced purchase price of the microcomputer has helped lower that barrier. Many teache rs are busy with their daily routines and can find any excuse when asked to add something new.â€Å"Why change what is working? † Many teachers find that it is easier to maintain the status quo: staying with what has been comfortable. Some teachers are afraid of taking any risk and exposing themselves as lacking skills, especially in front of their students. According to Rick Maurer, this fear of change can be categorized into three levels of resistance. Level One: â€Å"Resistance to any use of technology. † These teachers do not understand what the administration is trying to accomplish, or doubt if the school realizes how much technology will cost in time or money.They have their own ideas about what the school should do-they like the status quo, and believe the timing is wrong. Their main concern may just be fear of letting others know what they don't know. Level Two: â€Å"Deeper than the use of technology. † These teachers believe the administration has ma de promises before which they did not keep. They are afraid that technology use is really the start of something deeper and fear if they do not use technology, they will no longer be included as â€Å"in. † Actually, many of these teachers may be worn out by taking on so many changes all at once and may not be completely opposed to using technology.Level Three: â€Å"Deeply embedded resistance. † These teachers may have developed deeply entrenched distrust over many years. They fight anything the administration is supporting because values differ from what teachers want and what administration is proposing. Teachers need a great deal of motivation when it comes to implementing technology in the classroom (Gahala, 2001). There are many obstacles to overcome. Technology can be very intimidating for many teachers â€Å"because introducing technology almost always requires new learning† (Dyrli & Kinnaman, 1994).â€Å"Teachers may lack the time and the motivation to learn technology skills . The integration of technology into the curriculum will not succeed without giving teachers ample time to practice, explore, conceptualize, and collaborate† (Gahala, 2001). This can be done by inviting them to join the school technology planning committee. â€Å"Solicit teachers' participation on the technology planning committee and explain why their participation is important† (Conner, 2002). Another barrier to consider is the cost of technology to be implemented.Computer-based systems are more expensive to set-up. Hardware and softwares must be purchased and staff must be re-trained or recruited. Some disturbance and expense can be expected due to the need for the installation of additional electrical power circuits and computer network cabling and redecoration in parts of the school. Besides the high initial cost, the primary problem with investing in technology is the changing pattern of technology usage along with revisions in the associa ted definition of â€Å"adequate resources†.Maintenance and security for existing resources also became important cost issues. In the 1980’s and 1990’s, new directions in technology use replaced the emphasis on microcomputers with the trend toward multimedia and integrated learning systems. Schools now face a dual challenge that seems likely to remain the only constant amid changing educational technology. Monetary costs associated with the implementation of computer-based technology system includes : 1) Capital cost of computer and network hardware and software; 2) Installation cost, including classroom and laboratory renovation.; 3) Hardware and software upgrades; 4) Support personnel for hardware and software installation, repair, and maintenance; 5) Support personnel and facilities for training and support of users (instructors and students). Obsolete computers are replaced with more powerful computers, which include more sophisticated peripherals and networ k connections. These computers, software, and the associated infrastructure require a greater level of training to use and maintain. Public school systems in the U. S. are currently spending $4,100,000,000 on hardware and software [8].A detailed study of K-12 education estimates that a reasonable target spending for technology should be approximately $300/student, compared to $70/student now being spent [9]. A 1996 forecast predicts spending on educational technology by K-12 and higher education to rise from $6Ãâ€"109 to $14Ãâ€"109 by the year 2000 [10]. As a specific example in higher education, Virginia Tech, which has 25,000 total students, is spending $10-million over four years in an Instructional Development Initiative for classroom and faculty infrastructure.Computer projection equipment is being installed in classrooms, and approximately 1500 faculty members are receiving information technology training and a computer. Once all faculty members complete the course, another 4-year cycle will begin. The dollar amount of this initiative does not include money spent by individual colleges, departments, and research groups for information technology for educational use. Oberlin quotes a total expenditure of $40-million on information technology for a Research-I university of 25,000 students [11].This figure translates to $1,600 per student per year, and does not include the money spent by individual students who can afford their own personal computers, peripherals, and software. Whether purchased with government support, tuition, student fees, or personal funds, the use of information technology is increasing the cost of education. Moreover, other problems may arise during the implementation of technology and these include the following: 1) Methods of working are distorted to fit the requirements of the software used.If the software is not sufficiently flexible so that it can be changed to support current or proposed methods of working then these may have to be adjusted to match the requirements of the software. 2) Bringing new IT-based systems into use can be time-consuming, as it is prudent to continue with both the old system and the new system until it is clear that the new system is working effectively. 3) Software may not do what is required of it. This may happen when the software does not work as it should or because new demands are made for additional facilities that the software is not designed to supply.CONCLUSION/RECOMMENDATION: Nowadays, technology is rapidly moving and we cannot help but to cope with the advancement. It is true that using technology in education is very expensive and time consuming but it was worth the cost. Unfortunately, lack of global long-range planning often amounts to wasted efforts and excessive costs. For an innovation to be successful, teachers need to learn new skills and they may need to unlearn beliefs about students or instruction that have dominated their professional careers (Darling, Ham mond & McLaughlin, 1996).Thus teacher professional development is at the heart of sustaining an innovation. Student support and enthusiasm for the local innovation also played an important role in motivating teachers to continue to carry out and improve the innovation. Teachers want to do what is best for students to enhance their learning. If they believe that students are benefiting from a particular innovation, they in turn will be willing to devote additional time and effort required to maximize the advantage brought on by the innovation.Likewise, educators must resolve many complex issues in order to apply technology solutions to educational problems. They must address many concerns before and during implementation to ensure that technology will have the desired effects on students and schools. These concerns range from funding to selection and placement of technology resources. The author believes that regardless of the downfall of technology, computer-based system of educatio n must go on to continuously improve learning. REFERENCES: 1. Conner, D. (2002, April 12). Technology planning: Closing the communications gap Education World.Retrieved March 19, 2004, from http://www. educationworld. com/a_tech/tech152. shtml 2. Crawford, R. (1997). Managing information technology. London: Roulledge. pp. 131-135. 3. Dyrli, O. E. , and Kinnaman, D. E. (1994, January). Gaining access to technology: First step in making a difference for your students. Technology and Learning, pp 16-50. 4. Crawford, R. (1997). Managing information technology. London: Roulledge. pp. 131-135. 5. Gahala, J. (2001, October). Critical issue: Promoting technology use in schools. Retrieved March 29, 2004, from http://www. htm 6. Maurer, Rick. (1995) Beyond the Wall of Resistance: Unconventional Strategies that Build Support for Change. Bard & Stephen. 7. Norton, P. & Sprague,D. (2001). Technology for teaching. USA: Allyn & Bacon. pp. 23-30. 8. Data from a Quality Education Data (QED) report(1996), quoted in J. Chem. Ed. 73, A248. 9. Glennan, T. K. ; Melmed. (1996) A. Fostering the Use of Educational Technology: Elements of a National Strategy; RAND: Santa Monica, CA. http://www. rand. org/publications/MR/MR682/contents. html 10. CCA Consulting Inc.(1996) quoted from News, Resources, and Trends, June 28, 1996, SyllabusWeb, Syllabus Press: Sunnyvale, CA. http://www. syllabus. com/ntr06_28_96. html. 11. Oberlin, J. L. (1996) â€Å"The Financial Mythology of Information Technology: The New Economics,† CAUSE/EFFECT , 19(1) issue of Spring 1996, 21; http://cause-www. colorado. edu/information-resources/ir-library/abstracts/cem9616. html 12. Darling-Hamilton, L. & McLaughlin, M. W. (1996). Policies that support professional development in an era of reform. In M. W. McLaughlin & I. Oberman (eds. )Teacher learning: New policies,new practices. NewYork: Teachers College Press.

Friday, August 16, 2019

Bba 8th Sem Report Purbanchal University

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1. 1 Background An internship is the period of supervision training required for qualifying for a profession. It follows a specified number of academic creditor and classroom years. An internship program is an educational plan which combines classroom theoretical knowledge and practical work experience in industrial, business, or government work situations. These help students to have opportunity to signify academic theories and principles to action, to test out career interests and to develop skills and abilities through carefully planned and supervised programs related to the career of their choice.Internship is a practical section of the BBA course required to be done by each and every BBA students. Internship is an applied form of knowledge which we have learnt in BBA till 8th Semester. Internship is just like a training section in which we get familiar with the corporate culture and gain practicability in our lifestyle. Hence, it is the way through which we can achieve our career objective. With its ultimate objective of educating students for professional pursuits in business, industry and government the Faculty of Management (FoM), TU has been continuously putting efforts towards providing quality education to the people.Furthermore, FoM has been contributing to increase the knowledge and understanding of business and public administration by offering various programs that best concede in achieving the objectives. Bachelor in Business Administration (BBA) is one of the programs offered by FoM with a view to fulfill the gap of Middle Level Managers in the job market with competent, practically able, socially responsive, creative and result-oriented management professionals.In its process of developing such professionals, BBA requires the students to gain an eight weeks experience as an intern that is expected to blend the theoretical knowledge gained in the classroom with the real work environment. This report is the result of the requirement which includes the study based on the knowledge and experience acquired at PRIME BANK as an intern. The report tries to focus on the accounting procedure at the bank along with other relevant information. 1. 2 Objectives of the ReportAn internship program is organized with a main objective to provide student an opportunity to be familiarize with organization activities and environment. Further it also provides us with an opportunity for developing managerial skills by working in the organization. It is to evaluate and compare the theoretical aspect with the practical life, with also to identify the problem and their underlying causes with complying developing capabilities to evaluate potential solutions that optimize organizations Strength, Weakness, Potential Opportunities and competitive Threats.It also helps to develop strategic skills in student which helps to reduce the risk and weakness, and to hub opportunities and strength. 1. 3 Methodology: 1. 3. 1 Organization Selection Being the student of finance it was necessary for me to analyze the activities of financial sector, specially banking sector. For organization selection my college helped me to assessed the banking organizations. With the help of college I finally get a chance to do internship in Laxmi Bank Limited.Accordingly, I dropped Personal Application and College Recommendation Letter with CV (Curriculum Vitae) in the PCBLafter; I followed up regularly with human resource manager till I was appointed for the internship. Finally, I was appointed on June at PCBL on CSD. 1. 3. 2. Placement During the internship period of eight weeks I was placed Customer Service Department (CSD),. The internship was really informative and beneficial. I would really like to thank the Human Resource (HR) department for my placement in the departments. 1. 3. 3.Duration of Internship The bank granted me the internship period of eight weeks starting from Jestha 20, 2068 B. S to Shrawan 13, 2067. In this pe riod I got an opportunity to be a part of various departments and work there. 1. 3. 4 Activities carried out During 8 weeks of internship, I was allocated at New baneshwor branch of PCBL. The more important function used in computer for performing daily banking transactions and setting up accounts is Pumori Plus software and the software helps to perform all the activities of various department as required.PCBL, one of the major financial intermediaries whose primary function is to transfer of monetary resources from the savers to the users. This section includes the study based on the internship period and the various tasks performed during the stay in bank. During these 8 weeks, I was placed in Customer Service Department, Remittance and Cheque Clearing Department. The activities I performed in the organization, during my internship on the basis of the departments are as follows:- Customer service department in there the various activities perform were:-It is very crucial departme nt where numbers of customers make face-to-face interaction with the staff of PCBL. Customer service is the provision of service to customers before, during and after purchase. Customer service department is one of the busiest as well as the major department of bank where the interaction of the customer is the most. * Opening new account for the customers visiting the bank. * Account Reactivation. * Closing of account * Informing about the banks product to the customer. * Suggesting type of product and services suited to customer. * Printing balance statement for the customers. Providing Balance Certificate to customer. * Preparing and issue cheque books for the customers and maintain record. * Informing the customers about the different department in the bank and respective function * Signature change Request. * Block, Refresh and Reissue new ATM-debit card after verification. * Reissue of pin. * Renew of fixed deposit. * Filling of KYC form. * Stop Payment for wrongly issued chequ e, as per request of Account holder. * Locker register, in and out time. * Making Daily Report and weekly report, regarding A/C open and A/c close. Recording Petty cash expenses and summit quarterly report. * Receiving and make call and Transfer the call. * File transfer and Management i. Cheque book request slips ii. Balance certificate photocopy and its issuance request application. iii. Account statement request applications. iv. Account Opening forms after completion. v. Visa debit card application forms, sms banking, E-banking and vi. Other incoming letters. * Keeping record of transaction (while distributing cheque book, Debit Card, A/C opening, statement printing, locker, Balance certificate etc). Updating information whenever necessaryOthers * Photocopying * Faxing * Make a call * Scanning 1. 4 Limitations of the Study * Time and resources constraints are other limitations of the study. * Since the internship period was limited to only 8 weeks, it was not possible to have in depth and detail study of all the activities of all departments. * The banking sector is the most competitive sector. So intern was made familiar with only the routine work of bank and was not made familiar to the core information of the bank. * The bank’s staffs were highly occupied by their work so they had very little time to interact with the intern. As internship period falls under the month of Assad during the closing time of banking sector so the bank’s staffs were highly occupied by their workloads so they had very little time to interact and monitor the interns. * The financial data of current fiscal year 2067/68 couldn’t be collected as the auditing process was not completed. * This report is mainly based on my personal individual experience and knowledge gained during internship period and theoretical knowledge gained from course study so lacking of technical terminology and its right use may seems to be missing.In spite of all those limitation, I ha ve tried my level best to gain adequate knowledge of banking and corporate culture and sincerely perform the task given by the supervisor and the staffs. The whole experience was an exciting challenge as well as excellent learning opportunity . CHAPTER -TWO INTRODUCTION OF THE INDUSTRY 2. 1 Meaning of bank An establishment authorized by the government to accept deposit , pay interest ,clear checks, make loans , act as an intermediary in financial transaction and provide other financial services to its customers.Bank is a financial institution, which deals with the money, receiving money as deposit from customer; honouring customer’s drawing against such deposits on demand, collection of cheques for customers and lending or investing surplus deposits until they are required for repayment. In present days, various types of Banks are established with various different product and purposes and targets such as Industrial Bank, commercial Bank, Agriculture Bank, Joint stock Bank, C o-operatives Bank and Development Bank etc. Modern Banks are more advanced than the ancient one.This is due to increased population and development resulting changes in industrial field and trade, increase in competition, changes in people’s ideology and due to increased inter relation and dependence with each other. It is generally said that the word â€Å"BANK† has been originated in Italy. In the middle of 12th century there was a great financial crisis in Italy due to war. To meet the war expenses, the government of that period a forced subscribed  loan  on citizens of the country at the interest of 5% per annum.Such loans were known as ‘Compare', ‘minto' etc. The most common name was â€Å"Monte'. In Germany the word ‘Monte was named as ‘Bank' or ‘Banke'. According to some writers, the word ‘Bank' has been derived from the word bank. It is also said that the word ‘bank' has been derived from the word ‘Banco' whi ch means a banch. The Jews money lenders in Italy used to transact their business sitting on banches at different market places. When any of them used to fail to meet his obligations, his ‘Banco' or banch or banch would be broken by the angry creditors.The word ‘Bankrupt' seems to be originated from broken Banco. Since, the banking system has been originated from money leading business; it is rightly argued that the word ‘Bank' has been originated from the word â€Å"Banco'. Today the word bank is used as a comprehensive term for a number of institutions carrying on certain kinds of financial business. In practice, the word ‘Bank' means which borrows money from one class of people and again lends money to another class of people for interest or profit 2. 2 Evolution of Banking IndustryThe first  banks   were the  merchants of ancient world that made  loans   to farmers and traders that carried goods between cities. The first records of such activit y dates back to around 2000 BC in  Assyria and  Babylonia Later in  ancient Greece and during the  Roman Empire lenders based in temples would make loans but also added two important innovations; accepted deposits and changing money. During this period there is similar evidence of the independent development of lending of money in  ancient China  and separately in  ancient India.Banking in the modern sense of the word can be traced to medieval and early  Renaissance  Italy, to the rich cities in the north like  Florence,  Venice and  Genoa. The  Bardi  and  Peruzzi families dominated banking in 14th century Florence, establishing branches in many other parts of  Europe. Perhaps the most famous Italian bank was the  Medici  bank, set up by Giovanni Medici in 1397. The development of banking spread through Europe and a number of important innovations took place in Amsterdam during the  Dutch Republic in the 16th century and in London in the 17th c entury.During the 20th century developments in telecommunications and computing resulting in major changes to way banks operated and allowing they dramatically increase in size and geographic spread. The  Late-2000s financial crisis  saw significant number of bank failures, including some of the world's largest banks and much debate about  bank regulation. As a public enterprise, banking made its first beginning around the middle of the twelfth century in Italy and the Bank of Venice, founded in 1157 was the first the public banking institution.Following it were established the Bank of Barcelona and the Bank of Genoa in 1401 and 1407 respectively. The bank of Venice and the Bank of Genoa continued to operate until the end of eighteen century. With the expansion of commercial activities in Northern Europe there sprang up a number of private banking houses in Europe and slowly it spread throughout the world. In Nepal, modern banking starts with the establishment of Nepal Bank Li mited. 2. 3 Development of Banking Industry in Nepal The history of modern financial system of Nepal was begun in 1937 with the establishment of the Nepal Bank Ltd. NBL) as the first commercial bank of Nepal with the joint ownership of government and general public. As mentioned above, Nepal Rastra Bank (NRB) was established after 19 years since the establishment of the first commercial bank ( i. e. ,NBL). After the establishment of NRB, Nepal witnessed a systematic development of the financial system. After the restoration of democracy in 1991, Nepal has clearly been following a liberalized economic policy and witnessing diversification in financial system. As a result, various banking and non-banking financial institutions have come into existence.As of mid-July 2002, there are 16 Commercial Banks, 16 Development Banks, 5 Regional Rural Development Banks, 54 Finance Companies, 34 Saving and Credit Cooperatives and 25 Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs) operating in the country. Nepal's first commercial bank, the Nepal Bank Limited, was established in 1937. The government owned 51 percent of the shares in the bank and controlled its operations to a large extent. Nepal Bank Limited was headquartered in Kathmandu and had branches in other parts of the country. There were other government banking institutions.Rastriya Banijya Bank (National Commercial Bank), a state-owned commercial bank, was established in 1966. The Land Reform Savings Corporation was established in 1966 to deal with finances related to land reforms. There were two other specialized financial institutions. Nepal Industrial Development Corporation, a state-owned development finance organization headquartered in Kathmandu, was established in 1959 with United States assistance to offer financial and technical assistance to private industry. Although the government invested in the corporation, representatives from the private business sector also sat on the board of directors.The Co-operative Ban k, which became the Agricultural Development Bank in 1967, was the main source of financing for small agribusinesses and cooperatives. Almost 75 percent of the bank was state-owned; 21 percent was owned by the Nepal Rastra Bank, and 5 percent by cooperatives and private individuals. The Agricultural Development Bank also served as the government's implementing agency for small farmers' group development projects assisted by the Asian Development Bank and financed by the United Nations Development Programme.The Ministry of Finance reported in 1990 that the Agricultural Development Bank, which is vested with the leading role in agricultural loan investment, had granted loans to only 9 percent of the total number of farming families since 1965. Since the 1960s, both commercial and specialized banks have expanded. More businesses and households had better access to the credit market although the credit market had not expanded. In the mid-1980s, three foreign commercial banks opened bran ches in Nepal.The Nepal Arab Bank was co-owned by the Emirates Bank International Limited (Dubai), the Nepalese government, and the Nepalese public. The Nepal Indosuez Bank was jointly owned by the French Banque Indosuez, Rastriya Banijya Bank, Rastriya Beema Sansthan (National Insurance Corporation), and the Nepalese public. Nepal Grindlays Bank was co-owned by a British firm called Grindlays Bank, local financial interests, and the Nepalese public. Nepal Rastra Bank was created in 1956 as the central bank. Its function was to supervise commercial banks and to guide the basic monetary policy of the nation.Its major aims were to regulate the issue of paper money; secure countrywide circulation of Nepalese currency and achieve stability in its exchange rates; mobilize capital for economic development and for trade and industry growth; develop the banking system in the country, thereby ensuring the existence of banking facilities; and maintain the economic interests of the general pub lic. Nepal Rastra Bank also was to oversee foreign exchange rates and foreign exchange reserves. Prior to the establishment of Nepal Rastra Bank, Kathmandu had little control over its foreign currency holdings.Indian rupees were the prevalent medium of exchange in most parts of the country. Nepalese currency was used mostly in the Kathmandu Valley and the surrounding hill areas. The existence of a dual currency system made it hard for the government to know the status of Indian currency holdings in Nepal. The exchange rates between Indian and Nepalese rupees were determined in the marketplace. Between 1932 and 1955, the value of 100 Indian rupees varied between Rs71 and Rs177. The government entered the currency market with a form of fixed exchange rate between the two currencies in 1958.An act passed in 1960 sought to regulate foreign exchange transactions. Beginning in the 1960s, the government made special efforts to use Nepalese currency inside the country as a medium of exchang e. It was only after the signing of the 1960 Trade and Transit Treaty with India that Nepal had full access to foreign currencies other than the Indian rupee. Prior to the treaty, all foreign exchange earnings went to the Central Bank of India, and all foreign currency needs were provided by the Indian government.After 1960 Nepal had full access to all foreign currency transactions and directly controlled its exports and imports with countries other than India. As a result of the treaty, the government had to separate Indian currency (convertible currency because of free convertibility) from other currencies (nonconvertible currency because it was directly controlled by Nepal Rastra Bank). In 1991 government statistics still separated trade with India from trade with other countries. Tables showing international reserves listed convertible and nonconvertible foreign exchange reserves separately. 2. Commercial bank at a glance Commercial banks are financial intermediaries that raise funds through demand and time deposits as well as from other sources, such as federal funds purchases and security repurchase agreements, funds from parent companies, and borrowing from other lending institutions (for example, the Federal Home Loan Banks). They use the funds to make loans, primarily to businesses and individuals, and to invest in securities. In context of Nepal the first commercial bank â€Å"Nepal Bank limited† was established in 1937 A. D. and second â€Å"Rastriya Banijya Bank† was established in 1966 A. D.Nepal has opened its door to foreign commercial banks in the kingdom almost a decade back. As the country followed economic liberalization, there was massive entrance of foreign banks in Nepal. Consequently Nepal Arab Bank was established in 1985 A. D. similarly the Nepal Indosuez Bank was established as joint venture between Nepal and France in 1986 A. D. , the legitimate entry of foreign commercial banks with full-fledged banking function led to rapid growth of banking system. After 1990 economic liberalization policy obtained by the government, now there are 33 commercial banks operating banking activities in Nepal.Latest commercial bank is Century Bank limited. The commercial banks expanded only since the 19th century. The industrial revolution of the 18th century opened the vast scope for the development of commercial banking in the last century. In the 20th century, banking institution became highly specialized and sophisticated especially in advanced countries like USA, UK and other countries. Commercial banks deal with activities of trade, commerce, industry and agriculture that seek regular financial and other help from banks for growing Table no. 1 List of Commercial Banks in Nepal S. No. Names| Operation Date (A. D. )| Head Office| Paid up Capital (Rs. In Millions)| 1| Nepal Bank Ltd. | 1937/11/15| Kathmandu| 3804| 2| Rastriya Banijya Bank Ltd. | 1966/01/23| Kathmandu| 3853| 3| Agriculture Development Bank Ltd. | 1968/01/02| Kathmandu| 94375| 4| Nabil Bank Ltd. | 1984/07/16| Kathmandu| 20298| 5| Nepal Investment Bank Ltd. | 1986/02/27| Kathmandu| 24091| 6| Standard Chartered Bank Nepal Ltd. | 1987/01/30| Kathmandu| 16102| 7| Himalayan Bank Ltd. | 1993/01/18| Kathmandu| 20000| 8| Nepal SBI Bank Ltd. | 1993/07/07| Kathmandu| 18639| 9| Nepal Bangladesh Bank Ltd. 1994/06/05| Kathmandu| 20103| 10| Everest Bank Ltd. | 1994/10/18| Kathmandu| 11196| 11| Bank of Kathmandu Ltd. | 1995/03/12| Kathmandu| 13595| 12| Nepal Credit and Commerce Bank Ltd. | 1996/10/14| Siddharthanagar, Rupandehi| 13997| 13| Lumbini Bank Ltd. | 1998/07/17| Narayangadh,Chitawan| 13000| 14| Nepal Industrial ; Commercial Bank Ltd. | 1998/07/21| Biaratnagar,Morang| 13116| 15| Machhapuchhre Bank Ltd. | 2000/10/03| Pokhara, Kaski| 16272| 16| Kumari Bank Ltd. | 2001/04/03| Kathmandu| 14850| 17| Laxmi Bank Ltd. | 2002/04/03| Birgunj, Parsa| 16140| 18| Siddhartha Bank Ltd. 2002/12/24| Kathmandu| 15610| 19| Global Bank Ltd. | 2007/01/0 2| Birgunj, Parsa| 15000| 20| Citizens Bank International Ltd. | 2007/06/21| Kathmandu| 19223| 21| Prime Commercial Bank Ltd| 2007/09/24| Kathmandu| 22457| 22| Sunrise Bank Ltd. | 2007/10/12| Kathmandu| 18554| 23| Bank of Asia Nepal Ltd. | 2007/10/12| Kathmandu| 15175| 24| DCBL   Bank Ltd. | 2008/05/25| Kamaladi, Kathmandu| 19209| 25| NMB Bank Ltd. | 2008/06/05| Babarmahal, Kathmandu| 16517| 26| Kist   Bank Ltd. | 2009/05/07| Anamnagar, Kathmandu| 20000| 27| Janata Bank Nepal Ltd. | 2010/04/05| New Baneshwor, Kathmandu| 14000| 28| Mega Bank Nepal Ltd. 2010/07/23| Kantipath, Kathmandu| 16310| 29| Commerz ; Trust Bank Nepal Ltd. | 2010/09/20| Kamaladi, Kathmandu| 14000| 30| Civil Bank ltd. | 2010/10/24| Kathmandu| 12000| 31| Century commercial Bank Ltd. | 2011/01/23| Kathmandu| 10800| Source: www. nrb. org. np 2. 5 Present Scenario of Banking Sector in Nepal There is tremendous growth in the number of financial institution in Nepal in the last two decades. At the beginning of 1980 s when financial sector was not liberalized, there were only few commercial banks and development banks performing baking activities in Nepal.There were few micro-credit development banks, finance companies, co-operatives and NGOs with limited banking transactions. After the liberalization of the financial sector, there has been a hallmark progress both in terms of the number of financial institutions and beneficiaries of financial services. Nowadays, there are 29 commercial banks operating in Nepal. On the other hand, a lot of financial cooperatives are also operating. With the increasing number of commercial banks, competition among themselves has also become more complex. In today’s dynamic environment, the commercial banks are trying to introduce nd establish themselves differently from other banks by providing special services and attractive schemes to its customers. Besides commercial banks, development banks are also improving their performance in Nepalese banking indu stry and they also play an important role in the growth of country’s economic position. CHAPTER -THREE INTRODUCTION TO PCBL 3. 1 Background Prime Commercial Bank Ltd. was incorporated in September 2007 as the 21st commercial bank in Nepal. We are a Category ‘A’ Financial Institution registered under the â€Å"Banks and Financial Institutions Act† of Nepal.It has been established by prominent business personnel and professionals from diversified areas with a prime objective of providing ‘Banking Services to Everyone' in the country where still large number of population are deprived of Banking Services. The Bank has in total 389 promoters holding 70% shares of the Bank. Prime Commercial Business Ltd has been established by prominent business personal and professional from diversified areas with a prime objective of providing â€Å"Banking service to everyone† in the country where still large number of population are deprived of Banking services .Grand opening was done by honorable finance Minister Dr. Ram Sharan Mahat on 28th September 2007. Its Head Office (HO) is situated at New Road, Bira Complex, and Kathmandu. The bank has established itself as an emerging player in financial sector with focus in customer service excellence maintaining excellent relationship with valued customers. It is counted among the top 10 commercial banks in Nepal by independent raters and publications in the country. The Bank’s shares are listed and actively traded in the Nepal Stock Exchange (NEPSE).With the concept of â€Å"Banking service to everyone†, PCBL has entered into banking business as the 21st Commercial Bank in the country. The bank has 24 branches and has introduced its first ATM facility at Bira complex, New Road (HO) to give 24 hours 365 days banking services to their valve customers. Top exporters and Importers of the country have established banking relationship with the bank with a substantial volume of foreign business which has substance the bank’s popularity in the international trade front.With the concept of â€Å"Banking service to everyone†, PCBL has entered into banking business as the 21st Commercial Bank in the country. The bank has 24 branches and has introduced its first ATM facility at Bira complex, New Road (HO) to give 24 hours 365 days banking services to their valve customers. Top exporters and Importers of the country have established banking relationship with the bank with a substantial volume of foreign business which has substance the bank’s popularity in the international trade front. 3. 2 MISSION/PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES/GOAL OF THE COMPANYOver the past 4 years, PCBL have been able to acquire a large customers base enabling to capture the market. This has been possible via continuous effort over the years to provide the facilities and best to the customers. The bank will endeavor to establish itself as technology savvy and customer friendly and try to maintain good relationship with its customers. PCBL gives the innovative approach that edge over any other banks when it comes to introducing modern banking products and services into the banking sector. The following are the objectives that PCBL has:- * To cater to all customer’s requirements. Promotion of national economy, society; individual enhancing the market share. * Mobilizing capital in important areas. * Ensure everyone with positive attitude towards customers needs and strong mutual relationship. * Providing international quality banking services to the corporate. * Providing complete financial solutions to customer and promising growth opportunities to employers. * To provide/ quality services and competitive prancing focus. * To collect spread throughout Nepal and channelize it into different productive development project. * Aims at rendering banking services to various sectors likes SMEs etc . 3 Capital Structure Prime Commercial Bank has been established by pr ominent business personnel and professionals from diversified areas with a prime objective of providing Banking Service to Everyone in the country where still large number of population are deprived of Banking Service. The bank will endeavor to establish itself as technology savvy and customer friendly and try to maintain good relationship with its customers. The bank has been established with following capital. Authorized capital | : NPR 300 crores| Issued capital | : NPR 150 crores| Paid up capital| : NPR 116. 37 crores| Paid up capital includes calls in advances of Rs 116. 37 crores. 3. 4 Product’s, Loan and Services of PCBL 3. 4. 1 Normal Saving Minimum Balance| NPR 500. 00| Interest Rate:| 6. 00% on Daily Balance| Interest Posting:| Quarterly| Product Features: * On Demand Statement * Free Debit Card * Free Cheque Book * Free SMS/Internet Banking * Free ABBS Facility * Unlimited Withdrawal/ Deposit * 3. 4. 2 Prime silver saving Minimum Balance| NPR 1000. 00| Interest Rat e:| 6. 00% on Daily Balance| Interest Posting:| Quarterly| Product Features: * On Demand Statement Free Debit Card * Free Cheque Book * Free SMS/Internet Banking * Free ABBS Facility * Unlimited Withdrawal/ Deposit 3. 4. 3 Prime corporate staff saving Minimum Balance| NPR 0. 00| Interest Rate:| 8. 00% on Daily Balance| Interest Posting:| Quarterly| Product Features: * On Demand Statement * Free Debit Card * Free Cheque Book * Free SMS/Internet Banking * Free ABBS Facility * Unlimited Withdrawal/ Deposit 3. 4. 4 Prime Shareholders Saving Minimum Balance| NPR 0. 00| Interest Rate:| 8. 00% on Daily Balance| Interest Posting:| Quarterly| Product Features: On Demand Statement * Free Debit Card * Free Cheque Book * Free SMS/Internet Banking * Free ABBS Facility * Unlimited Withdrawal/ Deposit 3. 4. 5Public Saving This product is available in each branch Minimum Balance| NPR 100. 00| Interest Rate:| 6. 00% on Daily Balance| Interest Posting:| Quarterly| Product Features: * On Demand Statem ent * Debit Card charge NPR 100. 00 * Free Cheque Book * SMS/Internet Banking charge NPR 50. 00 * Free ABBS Facility * Unlimited Withdrawal/ Deposit 3. 4. 6 Siddhi Ganesh Saving Account This Product is only available on Sorakhutte Branch.Minimum Balance| NPR 500. 00| Interest Rate:| 6. 00% on Daily Balance| Interest Posting:| Quarterly| Product Features: * On Demand Statement * Free Debit Card * Free Cheque Book * Free SMS/Internet Banking * Free ABBS Facility * Unlimited Withdrawal/ Deposit 3. 4. 7 Current Deposit Minimum Balance| NPR 5,000. 00| Product Features: * On Demand Statement * Free Debit Card * Free Cheque Book * Free SMS/Internet Banking * Free ABBS Facility * Unlimited Withdrawal/ Deposit Note:-Current A/c cost NPR 1000. 00 for gold purpose. 3. 4. 8 Fixed Deposit 3 Months Interest Rate:| 8. 0% on Daily Balance| Interest Posting:| Quarterly| 4 Months Interest Rate:| 9. 50% on Daily Balance| Interest Posting:| Quarterly| 6 Months Interest Rate:| 10. 50% on Daily Balance| Interest Posting:| Quarterly| Above 6 Month-below 1 year Interest Rate:| 11. 00% on Daily Balance| Interest Posting:| Quarterly| 1 year and above Interest Rate:| 11. 50% on Daily Balance| Interest Posting:| Quarterly| Note:- In fixed deposit interest rate will be negotiable by looking time period and Amount to be deposit. 3. 4. 9 Types of loan Deprived Sector(Institutional) * Deprived Sector(Retail) * Overdraft * Working Capital Loan * Demand Loan * Term Loan * Export Credit * Hire Purchases Loan – Commercial Vehicles * Hire Purchases Loan – Private Vehicles * Loan Against Fixed Deposits held with our bank * Loan Against Fixed Deposits held with our bank * Trust Receipt 90 days * Mortgage Loan * Loan Against Government Bonds * Loan Against Shares * Loan Against Gold ; Silver * Professional Loan * Equipment Loan * Education Loan * SME Loan * Home Loan 3. 4. 10. Wire Transfer * Transfer Money from your account to an account across the globe.The Wire Transfer (SWIFT messa ge) is a highly secure and efficient method of fund transfer. We have arrangements with major banks to send SWIFT messages which ensure secure and safe remittance to any place of your choice. 3. 4. 11. Foreign Currency Demand Draft * Get a demand draft in a foreign currency. * We provide you the facility to avail a Demand Draft in the following foreign currencies – Indian Rupee, US Dollar, and Pound Sterling. You can send the Demand Draft to the beneficiary, who receives payment from drawee bank on presenting the draft. 3. 4. 12. Traveler's Cheque Travelers' cheques are widely accepted instrument for convenience and safety instead of cash. We issue / encash traveler's cheque. 3. 4. 13. Western Union Money Transfer /IME /Money Gram * Customers can receive payments sent via Western Union Money Transfer/IME/Money Gram from our branches. 3. 4. 14. SCT Debit Card Card Services * SCT Debit Card (SCT Network) * 870 ATMs Network allover the Nepal. * 1500 Plus POS Terminals Network al lover the Nepal. * 4000 ATMs Network of Punjab National Bank allover the India. Transaction Limit Nepal (Withdrawal Limit) Maximum per transaction| NPR 16,000. 00| Minimum per transaction| NPR 500. 0| Maximum for a day| NPR 40,000. 00| India (Withdrawal Limit) Maximum per transaction| INR 10,000. 00| Minimum per transaction| INR 100. 00| Maximum for a day| INR 10,000. 00| Charges ATM Card Issuance Charge:| Free| New ATM Card Issuance forPublic Deposit Account Charge 😠 NPR 100. 00| Yearly Renew Charge:| NPR 200. 00| ATM Reissue Charge (For Lost, Expired & Damaged)| NPR 200. 00| Cash Withdrawal from Prime Bank ATM (Fee)| Free| Balance Enquiry from Prime Bank ATM (Fee)|   Free| POS Transactions (Fee)| Free| Cash Withdrawal from SCT Network other thanPrime Bank ATM (Fee)| NPR 25. 0| Balance Enquiry from SCT Network other than|   | Prime Bank ATM (Fee)| NPR 3. 00| 3. 4. 15. 365 Banking Branches| Holiday Counter| New road| 2:00 PM to 6:00 PM| Service Provides during Counter: * Deposit * Withdrawal * ABBS Facility * Cheque Collection * Foreign Currency Exchange * Travelers Cheque * Issuance of Indian/Foreign Currency Draft| 3. 4. 16. SMS Banking Track your account details anytime from anywhere Our SMS Banking lets you keep track of your account even while you are on the move. Register for the service by filling a registration form at our bank.After registration send SMS to 6262 with the keyword for your query. Receive a reply message on your mobile with your required information. SMS Services: Request Type| Query Message| Balance Enquiry| BE| Last 5 transactions in the account| ST| Note: – Type BE/ST in message box and send to 6262 3. 4. 17. E-Banking Services * Balance Enquiry * Account Statement * Interest Statement * Tax Statement 3. 4. 18. Safe Deposit Locker * Storing valuables at home becomes a security issue. * We offer safe, trustworthy space to store your valuables, documents and other things dear to you. 3. 4. 19.Locker Services * Deposit NPR 10,000. 00 to NPR 50,000. 00 * Annual fee from NPR 2000. 00 to NPR 10,000. 00 for various size 3. 4. 20. Letter of Credit * To establish Import Letters of Credit, sight as well as usance. * For you to be able to import required goods or purchase goods locally. 3. 4. 21. Bank Guarantees * We issue various bank guarantees to meet your different requirements for various purposes like bidding for tenders, issuing performance bonds, advance payment guarantees and custom guarantees. * We can also issue local guarantees against counter guarantees of acceptable foreign banks.Banking Hour Sunday – Friday 10:00AM – 3:00PM Evening Counter * 3:00PM – 7:00PM *Available only at specific branches 3. 5. ORGANIZATIONAL STRATEGIES The main focus of the bank is quality service. In order to be the leading provider of the banking products and services, via new technology distribution modern channels serving a target group of corporate and general customers. Some of the strategie s of the PCBL are as following:- * To develop a customer oriented service culture with special emphasis on customer care and convenience. * To increase PCBL‘s market share by following a disciplined growth strategy. To develop innovative products and services that attract PCBL’s targeted customers and market segments. * To maintain a high quality asset portfolio to achieve strong and sustainable returns and to continuously build shareholder’s value. * To explore new avenues for growth and profitability. * To serving the client’s needs effectively and proactively. * To focus on a well-defined list of high priority clients. * To enhance strong customer relationships. These are the strategies of PCBL that has helped the bank to stand as one of the most successful commercial bank in Nepal as PCBL is committed to serving the customers.They are dedicated to improving customer care and to take a leadership role as to integrate banking sector. PCBL seek to attract the best people and to be a leader in fulfilling their missions. 3. 6 Core value and Ethical principles Integrity and Business Ethics: Commitment to integrity and business ethics is our fundamental principle to do the business. Teamwork: We believe that essence of success is team work and thus achievement of VMO is possible only when every member of team contributes to their ability. Most importantly we consider all our business partners (clients) as a part of the team with whom we share our ideas/skills, learn rom each other and take the business relations to the greater heights so as to be mutually beneficial which will ultimately lead to the successful relationship. Respect and Humility: We understand that respect and humility are the key factors to motivate and drive every individual towards the organizational goals. We honor the culture, language, ethnicity, social values and entrepreneurial spirit of every individual across the boundaries and draw strength from equal opportun ity and diversity thereby enabling the growth of all the stakeholders.Professionalism: Everything we do, we do with the highest standards of professionalism. Research and Development with focus on business partners (clients/customers) is the key to pursue innovation, deployment of imagination and quality functions/characteristics and translate new ideas into reality consistently whereby we can delight the customer/clients by delivering the products/services with outstanding quality so that our relationships with our clients will remain forever.Good Governance: We are committed to ensure the transparency and internal control systems through clear-cut policy guidelines/manuals, procedures, central bank's rules regulations for our own satisfaction and to satisfy the regulators thereby ensuring the Corporate Good Governance. Loyalty: We maintain the highest level of loyalty towards all stakeholders, particularly the business partners (customers/clients) and promise to walk alongside the business partners at difficult times/situations.We will strive to prove that â€Å"Bankers are all weather friends† as against the traditional concept of â€Å"Fair weather friends† by maintaining the Business loyalty at all times. 3. 7. ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE Table 2: List of Board of Director Board of Directors NAME OF THE DIRECTOR| DESIGNATION| EXPERIENCES| Mr. Narendra Bajracharya| Chairman| * Past President Hotel Association of Nepal. * Experience in the Banking sector for past 30 years. | Mr. Uttam Narayan Shrestha| Director| * 32 years of experience in Agricultural Development Bank. * General Manager in NIDC Capital Market for 2 years. General Manager Cottage and Handicraft Industry for 1 Year. | Mr. Rajendra Das Shrestha| Director| * 30 years of experience in industry and trading house. | Mr. Shyam Bahadur Shrestha| Director| * 4 years of experience in insurance companies * 20 years of experience in Pharmaceutical Industry| Mr. Uday Mohan Shrestha| Director| * 2 years of experience in Banking Sector * 25 years of experience in Hotel Industry| Mr. Umesh Shrestha| Director| * President for PABSON for 6 years * 30 years of experience in educational institutions. | CHAPTER FOURANALYSIS OF ACTIVITES DONE AND PROBLEM SOLVED 4. 1 CUSTOMER SERVICE DESK (CSD) Customer service  is the provision of  service  to  customers  before, during and after a purchase. It is a function of how well an organization is able to constantly and consistently exceed the needs of the customer and the department in any organization that deals with the queries and complains of the customer at first is known as customer service department. For any organization it is the very place which makes an early impression to the clients. It is the place where customers make the first contact with the clients.The image and the reputation of bank depend upon effective functioning of this department. It is the first place where the customers first get the service. It is very important to know that a highly satisfied customer stays loyal longer, buys more as the organization introduces new product, pays less attention to competing brands and is less sensitive to price. It would then not be inappropriate to say that this department is the key to success of any organization This department is involved in various activities from opening an account to its closing, providing account statement as per ustomer demand. The basic functions of this department are customer counseling, account operations and distribution activities etc Customer counseling is most important functions of customer service department. The efficiency of the customer service department or an organization is the outcome of the quality of the customer counseling that it provides. There are various kinds of products and services available in this organization. This department is also responsible for providing detail information regarding these different products and services. 4. 2.Major Activities Done on CSD (Business Desk) 4. 2. 1 Dealing with the customer It includes attending, solving queries and assisting customer to fill out the different types of account opening form such as saving, current and fixed deposit account correctly and also managed all the necessary documents related to his/ her identification form. Similarly client information was entered in record of ledger as well as in computer system. Various queries of clients are answered. All required information are provided very politely and sincerely. Work done by dealing with customer: helped them to fill cash deposit voucher * helped them to fill Account opening and closing form * helped them to use ATM * replied their queries regarding various product * gave direction to their required department 4. 2. 2 Account opening Customers who want to open new accounts are asked to fill in the form. They need to bring two passport size photographs. If they have a supplement or a nominee, then they have to brin g the nominee’s passport size photo and citizenship as well. There are basically two types of accounts: a) Saving Account:The different deposit schemes under the saving account can be listed above in chapter three. b) Current Account: Basically, this account is opened by sole-proprietorship, partnership firms, and corporations. The current account held in the name of firm is called â€Å"current corporate account†. The account holder has to maintain rupees five thousands as its minimum balance. Current account provides no interest on the sum deposited. However, firms can transfer the current account into â€Å"call account† in multiple of 10000; at the end of the day. Which provides interest on daily balance?Interest rates are negotiable on the basis of deposits. Current account can be opened for gold loan purpose also with minimum balance of NPR 1000. Account opening form is same for all type of product in PCBL but it should be maintain which type of account is going to opened in account opening form. Documentations: The bank should maintain proper documentation to know about the customer in person and to avoid account opening in the name of artificial person, companies, institutions etc. for all customers a proper application, identification document, photograph, specimen of signature are compulsory.Different documents are required for different companies and organizations. The different documents required for the individuals, companies and organizations are as follows: For an individual: * Citizenship certificate or passport or driving license. * Two passport size photographs. * Photo of nominee (if there is a nominee) * Citizenship certificate or passport or driving license (if there is a nominee) For a sole proprietorship firm: * Firm registration certificate * Income tax registration certificate (PAN/VAT) * Citizenship certificate of the proprietor. Authority letter (incase of third party operation) * Declaration of sole proprietorsh ip. For a partnership firm: * Partnership firm registration certificate. * Income tax registration certificate. * Partnership deed. * Resolution of partners. * Citizenship of partners. * Minute for account operation. For a private or public limited company: * Company registration certificate. * Income tax registration certificate. * Identification documents. * Memorandum of association * Articles of association * Board resolution * Minute for account operation. For a trust club or social organization: Registration certificate. * Trust deed. * Constitution and By laws * Board resolution Identification documents The company or individual is given an account number by filling in information provided on the form using the computer system. PBL uses the software Pumori for its banking ascertained. The form is sorted out and further worked on. The form is divided into four parts: account opening form, debit card application form, cheque request form and SMS banking form. The account openin g part is used to feed information in the system of the bank regarding the account, its type and details of its holder.Every application form is checked, scanned and approved by the operations incharge. After the approval of the operations incharge the forms are filed accordingly. Some customers may also want to close account. While closing account, it is necessary to get the signature on the account closing form by concerned bank personnel and the account holder. The account holder should return all the unused cheque leaves and should pay a certain charge as account closure fee as per bank’s system. 4. 2. 3 Closing of Account Procedure: * Ask the customer to fill up the form for closing the account * Verify the signature Get approval from the CSD in charge. * Deduct the necessary taxable amount and service charge from the balance * Calculate the net balance and ask the customer to draw the cheque of net balance and present it at the cash counter to issue cash * Get approval from all the department heads and file the document in account close section. Documents required while closing an account: Personal Account (saving) * Remaining cheque book * Debit card * Signature of the account holder in the account closing form Joint account * Remaining cheque book * ATM card Signature of all the members in account closing form Sole Proprietorship Account (other than Saving/ Premium Account) * Remaining cheque book * ATM card * Stamp of the company in the account closing form Account closure charges: * Rs. 750 for account closed, below six month from opened date. * Rs. 250 for account closed, after six month from opened date. 4. 2. 4 Cheque Book Issue Check book is issued at free incase the account holder lost the old request slip attached by the bank in previous cheque book. in such case RS 200 is charged. Procedure: The customer is asked to fill the white slip or new cheque book request slip of their old cheque book ( if they had used cheque book before) * Acco unt no is inserted on cheque inventory of computer system * Signature of Account holder is matched of slip and system. * Starting no and ending no of cheque book is inserted and posted * Cheque book record is kept on respective file and customer is asked to sign on it * The lost cheque of the concerned account is blocked in cheque inventory of pumari plus system. 4. 2. 5 On Demand statementSometimes the customer demand for the statement of the transactions. Issuing the statement means giving the whole transaction history of the account from the date as asked by the customer up to previous day it is requested. No fee is charged. and statmend is only given to the account holder or the agents if any mentioned. Process: * Enter date from and up to statement is requested * Print the statement * make the record in register * Signature is verified and handover to the customer. 4. 2. 6 Balance Enquiry Is provided upon the request of the customer and is provided only to the account holder. 4 . 2. ATM Card Distribution Debit card distribution process: * When the card is received from the head office they are checked and recorded. * After which the account holder are informed about their card arrival via telephone. * Upon the arrival of the customer they are asked for their names and ac no if not then checked in the information from pumori and record the ATM in delivery register. * Then customer asked to sign on register. * Signature is verified. * At the day end, after 4 o’clock all card holders’ account no. , ATM no. , are arranged in a table form in computer and mailed to card centre for aking card active. 4. 2. 8 Other activities done : * Explain services * Answer general questions * Refers to person who can help them with their problems * filling the documents * printing * fax sending * assisting other departments personnal with their work Signature Scanning Scanning of the signature is to be done and approved by Department head on the same day of accou nt opening. When a customer comes to get new cheque book or ATM card or get statement the signature of the customer should be verified to the scanned signature in the account opening form.Balance of Certificate Issuance (BOC) BOC is written in the name of account holder by the Bank. It is issued as per request of the customer. On the issuance of BOC IDBL charges Rs 200. BOC is usually issued inequivalent of US dollar, euro dollar or pound. Customers applying for visa for going abroad usually require BOC. Cheque Destroying: Cheque destroying is not a frequent activity of CSD but it is a very crucial activity and it is considered highly sensitive. It is performed even there is certain mistakes in cheque printing.The cheque serial number must be same in the system (Pumori) and in the physical cheque. So, when the serial numbers do not match. The cheques are destroyed in the system and â€Å"void† is written in the physical cheque. The destroyed cheques are kept in the vault as t he cheque is equivalent to cash and likely to be misused if not destroyed and stored safely. Providing general information about the services provided: People come to bank for the different purposes and may not be clear about what they should do next or whom they should contact to get their job done.In such case, CSD is responsible for providing true and accurate information. People may inquire different things over telephone as well. CSD provides the correct information inquired by the customers. CHAPTER –FIVE CONCLUSION AND LESSON LEARNT 5. 1. Conclusion The intern chooses Prime Commercial Bank Ltd. for my internship. The intern felt it will provide with the practical exposure in the field. During intern’s internship period the staffs of PCBL were very cooperative and guided me all the way till the end of my internship period i. e. two months.All the knowledge gained in this whole period will surely be handy for my career in the field of banking sector. The theoretic al knowledge that gained in intern’s college is backed up with this internship program due to its practical nature. Furthermore, to learn new lesson which were not covered in classes. It was exciting to see the real professional environment of the office. There were many departments each specializing in its own field. Intern was very comfortable; they provided intern with their senior staff as intern’s instructor Mr.Geha Ranjan Joshi (BM) and respected staff took intern to many departments to help intern gain good knowledge about the real time scenario of an agency. PCBL has its policy, performance to attract its customers with many special provisions of the deposit system, the loans ; advances and it has opened most of its branches in the business area. Staffs of PCBL are motivated and they are well qualified and trained and also the bank has provided the internship program as well with opportunity for employment. PCBL has possibility of earning more profit and goodwi ll in the future as its financial statement growth rate is positive.Customer Service Department is the main interactive part of the bank, front desk service where first customer interacts and tries to deal with their particular tasks. The first hand service is provided from this section. Almost all the minor detail of the bank related issue can be handling through this section. Therefore, front desk is encouraging customers to come PCBL for the services like remittance and other. According to the survey done during my internship period shows that customers are satisfied with the behavior shown towards them.And major reason for using PCBL by customers also found to be customer relationship. 5. 2. Lessons Learnt 1) The most important thing that I have learned during May internship period is the value of time. Time is always a determining thing. Timing of work is the key for the success. During my internship period I have seen employee just say I will do it later and they forget to do that work. After some time senor give ring and said that why don’t you guys do that? What are you doing? After that they seem to be mentally weak. That reflects they seem to be mentally weak.That reflect on their work and finally on their performance appraisal. 2) Clear division of work is key for success of any organization. During my internship I have found LXBL Maharjung branch lack that. The employee of CSD are quite confused with their responsibility. The senior of them from cash department assign lots of work to the employees of CSD which are under their responsibility of cash department . they are junior and they have to follow orders They star to do that work and lots their work are on pending. These after some problem on point 1 starts. ) Leader and the leadership quality of a leader is another important thing for the smooth function of organization. It also reflects on the effectiveness and efficiency of the work. 4) Flexibility is also key service for the customer satisfaction. Lots of time costumer can't get service because they don’t have exact document the organization demands. If a customer has a supporting document that there is right and if they have the required document, but they forget to bring. Then the organization should be able to provide the service to the costumers. ) CSD and the teller is the main place, where the costumers visit the most. How the employee on CSD and teller because to costumer, the reception of the costumers about the bank is made that way. 6) The interpersonal relation required, the employee is also one of the important factors for the success of organization. 7) The mental attitude of employee is also an important factor. Every employee should also understand that we are all human beings. We all have feelings. We all have emotion. We have master of our world so the leader doesn’t have to think that he is the senior and whatever I said they have to follow it.And junior doesn't have to think I am tae junior and they don’t listen to me. 8) Eagerness toward the work and toward the progress leads towards the development of employee as well as the high level performance an organization. 9) Human resource management is the main key of success for an organization. We can do whatever change to the infrastructure and the technology and other thing. Unless and until your employees are not motivated as manager you can't do anything. 10) Last but not the least, the organization structure, culture and most importantly the employees are the key success of an organization.